The official text of the Prohibited List
shall be maintained by WADA
and shall be published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.
This List shall come into effect on 1 January 2011
The 2011 Prohibited List 18 September 2010
THE 2011 PROHIBITED LIST
WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE
Valid 1 January 2011
All Prohibited Substances
shall be considered as “Specified
Substances” except Substances in classes S1, S2.1 to S2.5, S.4.4 and S6.a, and Prohibited Methods
M1, M2 and M3.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES
(IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION)
S0. NON-APPROVED SUBSTANCES
Any pharmacological substance which is not addressed by any of the
subsequent sections of the List and with no current approval by any
governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use (i.e.
drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development or discontinued) is
prohibited at all times.
S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic agents are prohibited. 1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
a. Exogenous* AAS, including:
(5α-androst-1-ene-3β,17β-diol ); 1-androstenedione
17β-ol); drostanolone; ethylestrenol
fluoxymesterone; formebolone; furazabol
androstano[2,3-c]-furazan); gestrinone; 4-hydroxytestosterone
dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one); mestanolone; mesterolone; metenolone;
methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one); mibolerone; nandrolone; 19-
(estr-4-ene-3,17-dione); norboletone; norclostebol;
norethandrolone; oxabolone; oxandrolone; oxymesterone; oxymetholone;
(17β-hydroxy-5α-androstano[3,2-c] pyrazole); quinbolone;
stanozolol; stenbolone; 1-testosterone
and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar
b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously:
(dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA); testosterone
and the following metabolites and isomers: 5α-androstane-3α,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol; 5α-androstane-
3β,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol;
androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3β,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-
3α,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol;
ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; epitestosterone; 3α-hydroxy-5α-
androstan-17-one; 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one; 19-
2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to:
Clenbuterol, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), tibolone,
* “exogenous” refers to a substance which is not ordinarily capable of being produced by the body naturally.
** “endogenous” refers to a substance which is capable of being produced by the
S2. PEPTIDE HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS AND RELATED
The following substances and their releasing factors are prohibited:
1. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents [
e.g. erythropoietin (EPO),
darbepoetin (dEPO), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers,
methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA), peginesatide
2. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
5. Growth Hormone (GH), Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1),
Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF),
Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
(PDGF), Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)
as well as any
other growth factor affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein
synthesis/degradation, vascularisation, energy utilization, regenerative
capacity or fibre type switching;
and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s). S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited
except salbutamol (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours) and salmeterol
when taken by inhalation in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommended
The presence of salbutamol in urine in excess of 1000 ng/mL is presumed not to
be an intended therapeutic use of the substance and will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding
unless the Athlete
proves, through a controlled
pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use
of a therapeutic dose (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours) of inhaled
S4. HORMONE ANTAGONISTS AND MODULATORS
The following classes are prohibited: 1. Aromatase inhibitors
including, but not limited to: aminoglutethimide,
(androstatrienedione), 4-androstene-3,6,17 trione (6-oxo),
exemestane, formestane, letrozole, testolactone.
2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)
including, but not
limited to: raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene.
3. Other anti-estrogenic substances
including, but not limited to:
clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant.
4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s)
including, but not limited, to:
S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Masking agents are prohibited. They include: Diuretics, desmopressin, plasma expanders (
administration of albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch
and other substances with similar biological effect(s).
Diuretics include: Acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlorthalidone,
etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone,
e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide),
; and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar
biological effect(s) (except drosperinone, pamabrom and topical dorzolamide and
brinzolamide, which are not prohibited).
The use In-
as applicable, of any quantity of a substance
subject to threshold limits (i.e. salbutamol, morphine, cathine, ephedrine,
methylephedrine and pseudoephedrine) in conjunction with a diuretic or other
masking agent requires the deliverance of a specific Therapeutic Use Exemption
for that substance in addition to the one granted for the diuretic or other masking
M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER
The following are prohibited:
1. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous
blood or red blood cell products of any origin.
2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including,
but not limited to, perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products), excluding supplemental oxygen.
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION
The following is prohibited:
or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and
validity of Samples
collected during Doping Control
is prohibited. These include but are not limited to catheterisation, urine substitution and/or adulteration (e.g. proteases).
2. Intravenous infusions are prohibited except for those legitimately received in
the course of hospital admissions or clinical investigations.
3. Sequential withdrawal, manipulation and reinfusion of whole blood into the
M3. GENE DOPING
The following, with the potential to enhance sport performance, are prohibited:
1. The transfer of nucleic acids or nucleic acid sequences;
2. The use of normal or genetically modified cells; 3. The use of agents that directly or indirectly affect functions known to
influence performance by altering gene expression. For example, Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists (e.g. GW 1516) and PPARδ-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis agonists (e.g. AICAR) are prohibited.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS
In addition to the categories S0 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above,
the following categories are prohibited In-Competition:
All stimulants (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited, except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the 2011 Monitoring Program*.
a: Non-Specified Stimulants: Adrafinil; amfepramone; amiphenazole; amphetamine; amphetaminil;
benfluorex; benzphetamine; benzylpiperazine; bromantan; clobenzorex;
cocaine; cropropamide; crotetamide; dimethylamphetamine;
etilamphetamine; famprofazone; fencamine; fenetylline; fenfluramine;
fenproporex; furfenorex; mefenorex; mephentermine; mesocarb;
modafinil; norfenfluramine; phendimetrazine; phenmetrazine;
phentermine; 4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon); prenylamine; prolintane.
A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance.
b: Specified Stimulants (examples): Adrenaline**; cathine***; ephedrine****; etamivan; etilefrine; fenbutrazate;
fencamfamin; heptaminol; isometheptene; levmetamfetamine;
meclofenoxate; methylephedrine****; methylhexaneamine
(dimethylpentylamine); methylphenidate; nikethamide; norfenefrine;
octopamine; oxilofrine; parahydroxyamphetamine; pemoline;
pentetrazol; phenpromethamine; propylhexedrine; pseudoephedrine*****;
selegiline; sibutramine; strychnine; tuaminoheptane;
and other substances
with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
* The following substances included in the 2011 Monitoring Program (bupropion, caffeine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradol, synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances
associated with local anaesthetic agents or by local administration
(e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) is not prohibited.
is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5
**** Each of ephedrine
is prohibited when its
concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.
is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater
than 150 micrograms per milliliter.
The following are prohibited:
Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its
derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone,
oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Natural (e.g. cannabis, hashish, marijuana) or synthetic delta 9-
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabimimetics [e.g. “Spice” (containing
JWH018, JWH073), HU-210] are prohibited. S9. GLUCOCORTICOSTEROIDS
All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous,
intramuscular or rectal routes.
SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR
Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited In-Competition
only, in the following sports.
Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping
violation threshold (haematological values) is 0.10 g/L.
• Aeronautic (FAI)
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition
only, in the following sports. • Aeronautic (FAI)
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following: Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol,
carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol,
metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.
THE 2011 MONITORING PROGRAM*
The following substances are placed on the 2011 Monitoring Program: 1. Stimulants: In-Competition Only: Bupropion, caffeine, phenylephrine,
phenylpropanolamine, pipradrol, pseudoephedrine (< 150 micrograms per milliliter), synephrine.
In-Competition Only: Morphine/codeine ratio.
* The World Anti-Doping Code
(Article 4.5) states: “WADA, in consultation with
Signatories and governments, shall establish a monitoring program regarding
substances which are not on the Prohibited List, but which WADA wishes to monitor
in order to detect patterns of misuse in sport.”
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