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Olvasott szöveg értése 1-3
Időtartam: kb. 80 perc
Just the treatment to get rid of quack doctors
The tribal castes in Kundamunda village are
impressed by powerful medicine. Their particular
training session. The translator was the first to
panacea is injections, which, though expensive,
inform me of the problem. There was a difficulty
must be mighty powerful, and therefore worth the
with the cook, he said. As the man was from the
expense. You can get an injection of just about
Sohara tribe, the women from the Kisan and Munal
anything: paracetamol for a cold, chloroquine for
tribes could not accept food from him. The Ghond
malaria – even vitamins, which of course are
tribe would only accept food from a Ghond cook.
essential for more or less any disease.
Women from the Chosa caste would only accept a
In this village in Orissa, in eastern India, the
cook from their caste and above. No one would
women told me about the man who had come
accept food from, or touch anyone from the
around the villages with a wonderful new treatment
scheduled caste, which includes the Dalits, or
from the United States called x-rays. He said he
“untouchables”, and the Chamar caste,
was a private doctor from the nearby town of
leatherworkers who, by the nature of their bovine
Sambalpur, and these x-rays were a cure for most
trade, are deemed more untouchable than the
things. All they had to do was to sit in front of his
untouchables. Our naïve arrangements, it seemed,
machine for a few moments. In a week or two the
However, help was at hand. As if by magic,
So the village marshaled all of the desperate
a Brahman priest popped out of the jungle. He
cases who were shut away from hope and the light
offered to cook, and because of his holy nature, was
of the day: consumptives, children with polio,
people with enlarged spleens or sickle cells
These social divisions are deep-seated but
anaemia. They scraped together their 100 rupees
not indelible. With engagement, patience and plenty
($2), or extended supplicant hands to the local
of laughter, they slowly fade. Over the months the
(landlord) for a loan. One by one the man
women have got to know each other, to laugh with
sat them in front of his box from the US, opened the
abandon, and to touch. We have even introduced
door and gave them a flash of red light. Then they
the hokey-cokey as a warm-up activity, to get them
hobbled off home to wait for better days, in awe of
going after lunch. They take their messages of
sisterhood home with them, and slowly their
I knew the corollary of this story. This
traveling snake-oil salesman was happened upon by
As for the quacks, they slink around on the
a man working for an NGO who saw the impostor
margins of the crowd when we hold village
for what he was. The x-ray box, he said, was an old
meetings. Dressed in town clothes and wraparound
refrigerator in which the fridge light, powered by a
shades, they stand out from the throng of tribal
dress and ochre bodies. We hope our health
workers will gradually erode the fabric of their
private doctors or quacks who are to be found in
deception. One day the people will wake up, and
most of the larger villages in this part of India.
the quacks will have to slink away with their dirty
They are usually educated people who have
syringes and date-expired bottles of vitamins.
acquired some lay knowledge. Perhaps they have
worked as drug dispensers’ assistants or have read a
book on health. They then move to a village, set
themselves up as private doctors, and prey on the
poor and illiterate. Not all are as opportunistic as
the x-ray man, but they are all exploiters.6.
Visiting these villages while working with an
NGO called Action Health/Skillshare International,
I soon realised that poverty was not the sole cause
of poor health. Exploitation by charlatans played a
part, as did certain traditional beliefs. Whooping
cough, for example, is treated by hanging a catfish
over the fire. Pregnant women eat less food so that
their baby will be small and can be delivered easily.
In an area with no obstetric service there is logic in
this, but babies get the worst start in life.7.
Our aim was to train one woman from each
village to become a health worker, so that she could give education, advice and simple treatment to the members of the community.
Match the following statements (a – i) with the paragraphs (1-11). Write the number of
the matching paragraph(s) in the boxes. Some paragraphs may be required more than
once or not at all.
Copy your answers onto the answer sheet.
a) A panacea from the Westb) Being poor is not the only explanationc) Compromise is always possibled) How one might become a charlatane) It’s easy to recognize private doctorsf)
Ray of hope for changing deeply rooted beliefs
g) Seeing through the trickh) The objective of the author’s organizationi)
Villagers in Orissa prefer an exorbitant treatment for almost any illness
What a “modern” snake-oil salesman charges
Olvasott szöveg értése 2
Read the article and answer the questions in English. Only include information from the
text. Give short answers, write full sentences only if necessary.
Copy your answers on the answer sheet.
Sale of the Century
In a bid to raise cash and save endangered monuments, Italy is putting its cultural heritage on the auction block.
It’s a developer’s dream: 20,000 square
entrance with lots of light.” The Greek
meters of premium property in the heart of
a colossal shopping mall. (Need parking?
property would solve a lot of problems for
And why stop at the capital? A spectacular
theme park and resort could go up on the
World Heritage sites than any other, save
island of Elba. Hundreds of kilometres of
Pollution in city centers like Naples, Rome
raise cash has alarmed preservationists.
Strapped for euros and fending off critics
Italian governments have long been stingy
who say it doesn’t adequately care for the
with funding for cultural preservation – it’s
country’s cultural treasures, the Italian
no surprise, given the country’s €16.6
billion deficit and €1.33 billion public
debt. But meanwhile, Italy owns about €2
Of course, officially, it sounds better than
trillion worth of property, and it doesn’t
that. Ministers speak of “privatization”, the
policy of transferring state-owned money-
together. Indeed, the driving force for the
cash-raising scheme comes from Italy’s
richest man: tycoon-turned Prime Minister
efficiently and turn a profit. Properties that
Silvio Berlusconi. In May 2001, he made a
can’t be sold entirely, the thinking goes,
could be leased out to corporations that
problem areas at a cost of more than €126
will handle concessions and maintenance.
billion over 10 years – and now the bill is
touched off a tempest of protest. The first
The government first hinted at the plan to
big drive comes next week, when Italy’s
sell public property for profit this summer,
but the president of the republic, Carlo
“Italy is not for sale,” with nationwide
urging, the government nixed any outright
sales of major national monuments. Italy
bills of sale. The Colosseum is advertised
are private, use such a plan. So the vendors
charge €7 for a Coke and put a price on
any sale of larger, more prominent sites
toilet paper – the sites are kept cleaner and
The big fear is that foreign corporations
Rome or the Uffizi galleries in Florence to
be sold. Mostly up for grabs are islands,
fears: “The government does not intend to
museums that are either a financial black
inalienable cultural heritage of this nation,”
hole for the government or are in desperate
need of renovation and restoration. And the
most likely scenario for the exploitation of
Federation fears the worst. “If a person
large-scale sites like the Leaning Tower of
buys a beach he does it to make a profit,”
she says. “Soon the place will become a
government’s offering a license to sell
Disneyland full of noise and concrete.” No
entrance tickets or granting contracts for
restaurant and sanitary services. This has
international conglomerate might come in
unions up in arms, as private firms would
likely hire their own workers, putting many
contract and part-time government workers
out of jobs. In reality, more than 100 state-
adequately take care of its heritage and
run museums, libraries and restaurants in
these cities and sites fall into further
management. The Vatican galleries, which
1. What is the objective behind the scheme?
3. How do the environmentalists protest against the government’s scheme?
4. Do the environmentalists campaign in a fair way? (Write YES or NO)
5. Which country tops the list of World Heritage Sites?
6. Mention 2 examples of the Italians failing to pay attention to their cultural values.
7. Explain briefly
how historic sites of great importance will most probably be exploited.
8. What different forms of ownership are mentioned in the article besides state
9. What is the preservationists’ biggest fear?
10. Give two examples of how the author indicates that the Italian Government is in
Olvasott szöveg értése 3
Fill each of the numbered blanks in the following passage with a suitable word. Use only
one word for each space (contracted forms are also accepted). Copy your answer on the
There is an example (0).
Ready, Steady, Eat
The more cooking there is on
, the less people cook.
According to a regular (1) __________ carried out by Taylor Nelson Sofres, a leading market
research firm, the amount of time that people spend preparing food has dropped sharply over
the past two decades, from one hour a day to an average of 20 minutes. Which, given the
proliferation of TV programmes, books, and newspaper supplements on cooking, seems (2)
What is to blame? The usual suspect is shortage of (3) __________, though presumably
people could be cooking their own Tagliatelle with Chicken instead of watching Nigella
Lawson, the most celebrated of chefs, knock up her own. Still, some combination of busy-
ness and family disintegration has (4) __________.to the growth of the ready-meal market,
which is probably the immediate culprit.
Ready-meals first (5) __________ in Britain in the early 1980s and the market is still (6)
__________ fast: Geest, a British food supplier, estimates that the market was worth £ 1.1
billion ($ 1.6 billion) in 2001, up 16% on 2000. Along with the ready-meal business growth,
product quality and variety improve, so (7) __________ people eat them on a regular basis.
Predictably, this gastronomic decline is culturally (8) __________. According to a recent
Reuters study, ready-meals and other “meal solutions” are most popular in America, Britain
and Sweden, (9) __________ of the prevalence of single-person households and working
women in those countries. They are slightly (10) __________ popular in France, Germany
and the Netherlands. The Spanish and Italians barely acknowledge their existence.
Időtartam: kb. 70 perc
of the following writing tasks and write 250-300 words
Write an essay
on ’The Value of a Sense of Humour’
Include your thoughts about the following points:
whether or not a sense of humour is an important human quality
whether or not humour promotes a better understanding between people
how it can help individuals balance out hardships
how it can alleviate or prevent human suffering
The sequence of the points is optional, and you can also add some ideas of your own.
Task II. Hosting the Olympic Games would bring the country fame and prosperity.
Do you agree or disagree with the statement above?
Write a for and against
giving your opinion on the topic. You should present
opposing points of view
along with your justifications
, examples or reasons, using advanced
Include your thoughts about the following points:
preparations – investments – foreign investors
Add any further arguments of your own.
A Publication of the Lubrication Engineers Technical Department LEADERS IN LUBRICANTS NUMBER 56 GREASE BASES USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF LUBRICANTS A lubricating grease is defined as a solid or semiliquid product representing a dispersion of a thickener in a liquid lubricant. Grease is used where it is required to hold the lubricating oil and appropriate additives together to lubricat
MALE MEDICAL HEALTH HISTORY This medical record is confidential and will not be released to anyone except as may be required by law. Name:__________________________________________________ Date of Birth _____/_____/________ Age _______ (Last) (First) (MI) mm / dd / yyyy Reason for visit_____________________________________________________________________________________ Please check