Impotentie brengt een constant ongemak met zich mee, net als fysieke en psychologische problemen in uw leven cialis kopen terwijl generieke medicijnen al bewezen en geperfectioneerd zijn
LEAVING CERTIFICATE BIOLOGY
HIGHER LEVEL EXAM PAPER SOLUTIONS
Sample Paper 4
D: Zone of Differentiation/C: Zone of Elongation/A: Root Cap/B: Meristem 4(1)
New Tissues: Zone of Differentiation/Mitosis: Meristem/Growth Regulators: Zone ofElongation/Absorbtion of water: Zone of Differentiation 4(1)
(i) A: Vascular bundle/B: Air Spaces/C: Guard Cells/D: Stoma 4(1). (ii) B+D2(I). (iii)Xylem/carries water and minerals up the stem 2(1). (iii) Correct labels X+Y 2+2
Proteins produced by lymphocytes in the lymphatic system /to fight pathogens 2(2)
Weakened form of pathogen which is inoculated into the body to induce production ofantibodies (2)
Produces more antibodies/effect lasts longer/quicker response to second infection 2(1)
May have side affects mmr vaccine, can cause brain damage (2)
(i) Competition –organisms compete for a common resource/cattle and sheep compete for grass2(2)
(ii) Organism lives on or in another living organism causing death or disease/liver fluke lives inthe bile duct of cattle or sheep 2(2)
(i) fox/sheep(2), (ii) rabbits – large ears for hearing/fox – good nocturnal vision 2(2), (iii)correct graph out of phase (4)
(i) DNA fragments, (ii) Thicker due to concentration of fragments of the same type, (iii) 9 3(2)
(i) C (ii) his sample matches the cigarette butt sample 2(2)
Adenine/Thymine/Guanine/Cytosine 4(1). ThymineorCytosine/hydrogen bonding 2(1)
Carbohydrate: whole grain bread/sugar; Fat: butter, ham, cheese ice cream, Protein: cheese, hamWater soluble vitamin: Vitamin C/Orange juice 4(1)
(i) fibre: whole grain bread, apple, peach, (ii) improves movement of food/cleans digestivesystem/prevents constipation 2(2)
(i) a single sugar unit (2), (ii) glucose (1), test Fehling’s solution or benedict’s reagent/heat800C/Colour change blue to red 3(2)
a) (i) Transpiration (3)
(ii) Easy to see – show exact transpiration stream pathway through the plant (3)
(i) Place stem in carrot (centre removed) or older stem (elder)
– or cut with micro tome – cross section
(ii) Place very thin sections in water.
(iii) Remove with paintbrush onto slide.
Significance: makes nucleus easy to see, also outlines plant cell wall (2)
Substrate: Hydrogen peroxide (3), Starch (substrate)
Product: Oxygen and water (2+1), maltase (product)
Plant undergoes dormancy – no metabolic actions (6)
(i) To ensure enzymes came in contact with substrate. (6)
(iii) To allow time and suitable conditions of temp for the enzyme to digest the starch.
Results: Where the seeds lay all the starch had been digested: no blue-black colour wheniodine added.
Control: Control as above using boiled seeds 5(3)
a) (i) 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
(iii) Use a water bath – constant temp 25–30oC on thermostatically controlled waterbath/temperature affects rate of enzyme activity. 2(3)
(iv) as conc. of CO2 increases so too does the rate until at a certain conc. the reactionbecomes saturated and rate remains constant. (3)
(v) Increased light intensity increases rate. (3)
(i) Artificial light provides great light intensity/longer exposure of plants to light.(6)
(ii) Greater amounts of CO2 keeps photosynthetic rate at maximum. (3)
Summer: Greater time of light exposure (6)
(i) Male infertility = inability to produce sperm or low sperm count (3)
(ii) Smoking/alcohol abuse/drug abuse stop the mentioned or hormone treatment orchange in diet. 2(3)
(i) A = Testes, B = Sperm Duct, C = Prostate gland, D = Urethra, E = Penis. 5(2)
Diagram to include Tail, Collar, Nucleus, Aerosome
(iii) In diagram show sperm from testes sperm duct penis vagina cervix uterus (womb)
(i) In vitro = fertilization outside the body/eggs removed from the ovary 2(3)
(ii) A fertilized egg is implanted/in the uterus/the eight cell structure is the morula. 3(3)
(iii) Progesterone: failure or drop off of progesterone/= miscarriage (6)
(i) Habitat: a place where plants and animals live.
Niche: is the functional role of an organism in a community.
(ii) Aquatic habitat: salinity; current speed, wave action, O2. (2+1)
(ii) Qualitative: Identifies the types of species present in a habitat. (3)
Quantitative: Records numbers of each species present in a habitat. (3)
Error: Human error: e.g. counting; using a transect not typical of habitat.
Changing conditions; accidental discovery; insufficient sample size. (4)
(ii) 2 plants 2(1), + 2 animal 2(1), adaptation (2)
(i) Spraying: results in fewer tomato flowers producing tomato fruits. (8)
(ii) Spiders may develop an immunity to the mites/mite population reduced (8) due tolack of food.
(iii) autotroph: tomato plant; herbivore: spider. 2(4)
(i) A chemical messenger, released into the blood system from an endocrine gland to atarget
Diagram to include (outside). Diagram 0, 3, 6
Labels: Cell body, dendron, dendrites, myelin sheath, schwann cells, node of ranvier. 6(2)
Correct labels 5(1) (ii) Hormone name & function (2) + (2)
(i) Cell continuity refers to the fact that all cells arise from pre existing cells. (3)
(ii) X = Mitosis (Asexual reproduction by cell division).
(iii) Mitosis produces 2 identical (diploid or haploid) daughter cells, geneticallyidentical. 2x(1)
Meiosis produces 4 haploid daughter cells (half number), genetically different.
unicell organism like amoeba: increases number of individuals.
In multicell organisms, it produces new cells for growth and repair.
Meiosis: Allow for sexual reproduction, i.e. leads to production of gametes with
haploid number of chromosomes: These combine to form a diploid zygote. 2x(2)
Allows for variation leads to different combination of genes.
Cancers: are uncontrolled multiplication of abnormal cells. In this case
the mitosis and the rate of reproduction of abnormal cells cannot be controlled. (2)
Causes: Carcinogens: – Cigarette smoke, asbestos, UV light, A/B gama rays,
RrBb Rrbb rrBb rrbbPink Pink white whiteBroad Narrow Broad Narrow
(ii) Mendel’s Second Law: During gamete formation either of a pair of alleles mayreassort randomly with either of another pair. (5)
case: the gene R is combined with B or b to form RB and Rb
And r is combined with B or b, rB and rb are formed.
This giving 4 possible phenotypes (genotypes of offspring). 4 x (2)
(i) Variations: Differences between members of species. (3)
Mutation: change in amount or structure of DNA. (3)
Causes: Chemicals, formaldehyde, tobacco smoke, radiation (UV). 2x(1)
(ii) Evolution: is the genetic change in living organisms producing new forms of lifeover a long period.
(iii) Source of evidence: Fossils: – rocks aged, older rocks less fossil/new rock morefossils/which are more specialised than predecessors/shows common ancestry.
The wing of a bat, hoof of a horse, paddle of a whale: all have the same bones/whichhave become adapted/shows common ancestry. 3x(3)
Organisms retrace their ancestry during their embroyology/by examinig the fish, frog,bird and human embryo we see the existence of gill slits/showing common ancestry.
w = xylem; x = phloem; (Y): ground tissue; z = root hair.
(ii) Osmosis: Nitrogen; sodium; calcium; phosphorous; potassium
Use: N: produce proteins, Na: control osmotic balance, Cu: growth, P =
(iii) xylem: diagram (0, 1, 3). Cell wall; Spiral (lignin); Hollow lumen
All internal structures die leaving a hollow lumen in the xylem. No living cytoplasm ofjust hollow phloem: companion cells have a clear cytoplasm and posess a nucleus.
(i) Evaporation from a leaf of water through stomata. Cuticle water proof. Stomata onunder-surface. (Reduce)
(ii) Root pressure, capillarity; adhesion, cohesion
Adhesion: Water adheres to the moist xylem.
Cohesion: Hairs keep water molecules together. Forming a continuous column. As
water evaporates the column moves up.
(ii) Excretion removal of metabolic waste.
Leaves: Loose water, O2 + CO2 through their lenticels and stomata. Water and CO2 are
products of respiration. O2 is a product of photosynthesis and lost during the day,together with H2O. CO2 is a product of respiration.
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