Impotentie brengt een constant ongemak met zich mee, net als fysieke en psychologische problemen in uw leven cialis kopen terwijl generieke medicijnen al bewezen en geperfectioneerd zijn

Microsoft word - 7 fattening.rtf

B. PLANT CAPACITY AND PRODUCTION PROGRAMME This profile envisages the establishment of cattle fattening farm with annual capacity of The present demand for cattle meat is estimated at 127,731 tonnes per annum. The demand is projected to reach 229,334 tonnes by the year 2012 The envisaged project will create employment opportunity for about 36 persons. The total initial investment cost of the project is estimated at Birr 12.86 million, out of which 3.7 million is for plant machinery and equipment. The project is financially viable with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 29% and net present value (NPV) of Birr 14 million, discounted at 10.5%. Fattening means controlling what cattles eat by using high quality feed so that to generate faster weight gains. It is a strategic feeding option which produce a quick result (2-3 months), technically quite simple. Agro-industrial by products can be used as feed sources. Once cattle have eaten to their appetite and remain full, the chance of negative upsets are reduced considerabliy. In this regard additional libitum feeding would result in increased daily weight gains of upto 700 gm per day. Meat produced in the country has two outlets; the local and export market. The greatest portion of the annual production is consumed locally while small portion of it is exported. To establish the present local demand for beef meat an end-users approach is used. For this estimation " The 1995/1996 Revised Report on Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey", published in 1998 by CSA is used as a base. The demand estimated based on the above indicated survey is given in Table 3.1. As can be seen from Table 3.1, the total national annual beef meat consumption in the year 1995/96 was 112,789 tonnes. The per capita consumption is thus estimated to be 2.14kg, given the total Ethiopian population of 52,689,067 at the time the survey carried out. Using the population growth rate of 2.9% per annum, the present effective national demand for beef Meat export has tremendously increased in the past few years. Table 3.2 presents export of Source: The External Trade Statistics, Customs Authority The above table indicates that substantial increase in the export of meat and meat products was registered during the period under review. From the year 1993 to 1998, export grew from 40 tonnes to 2,508 tonnes. The notable reason for this substantial growth in this five years is the devaluation of the local currency (Birr) which stimulated export, thus the average export of meat and meat products in this period i.e, 1,278 tonnes is assumed to indicate the current foreign market demand for the product. The increase in household meat consumption is mainly a function of three demand determining variables i.e population, income and consumption habit. The total population growth rate in Ethiopia is 2.9% per annum, while that of the urban population growth rate is 4% per annum. The consumption of meat by the rural population is expected to increase as a result of higher income. Hence, in order to estimate the probable level of future demand, present demand is assumed to increase by a slightly higher rate than the urban population growth rate, i.e.5% per annum. According to Economic Commission for Africa's (ECA) "Economic Report on Africa (2002)", the average growth rate of Ethiopian export over the period 1991-2000 were 4.8% per annum. Accordingly the future export market demand for the product is assumed to grow The demand projected on the basis of the above assumptions is shown in Table 3.3 Projected Domestic Projected Export Demand The domestic market price is determined by the market force of demand and supply. Whenever more cattle are driven to the market places the price would decline and vice versa. Generally the domestic market price for meat has shown a continuous increase over the past five years. The domestic market prices are indicated in Table 3.2 below. Farmers bring their cattle to their nearby cattle market, where they are bought by small cattle traders. The small cattle traders drive the cattle to the terminal market from which they are taken finally either to slaughter house after they are sold to meat shops (lukandas) or to other big towns for resale to meat shops in big towns. These cattle markets are the major sources of stock to the cattle fattening farms as well. Foreign market prices are determined by either through negotiation with the importers abroad or by the international market prices. The former approach is mostly commonly applicable in setting prices at the export market. There was in general price increase in the export market which contributed to the increase in the quantity of meat export. The annual average EXPORT MARKET PRICE OF MEAT AND LIVE WEIGHT The sharp increase in the export prices of meat during the early 1990sā€™ was attributed to Birr devaluation. The live weight price of cattle in the year 1995 is assumed to be the finished product price of cattle for the envisaged fattening farm i.e Birr 5,190 per tonne. The envisaged farm is recommended to directly export its product and for the local market use commissioned agents at strategic locations. The fattening project will have a capacity of 2500 heads of cattle, per batch and the objective is to process four batches per year with 90 days feeding period per batch. Stock mobilization can be arranged on weekly basis with 210 cattles per week. This level of production (10,000 heads per annum) is considered to be more realistic as it will enable proper management and efficient utilization of resources and assets. An average weight of each animal after fattening The farm will work all the year round. The farm will start at 75% of its rated capacity in the first year and full capacity in the second year and thereafter. Annual raw material requirement and cost of the fattening farm at full operation capacity is COSTS OF FATTENING FARM AT FULL CAPACITY Annual requirement of electricity, water and fuel is estimated at 12,950 kwh, 110,500 m3 and 75,500 liters, respectively. The total costs of utilites is, therefore, about Birr 455,650 per Generally, the fattenig farm will have the following process. Cattles purchased from purchasing centres ā€“ holding areas ā€“ feed lots - marketing. The holding areas are used as quarantine and treteatment. Treatment include: weighing, vaccination, deeping, etc. It is important that animals in the fattening programme receive adequate disease protection. Unhealthy and unproductive animals do not make good use of high quality fed, which is scares therefore, animals poorly performing after 2 weeks, needs to be culled and sold in the local market. Well performing animals kept for three months are expected to gain an average The machinery and equipment required can be supplied by Hagbes Ethiopia PLc. The required machinery, equipment and tools are listed in Table 5.1. Total cost is estimated at Birr 3.7 million, out of which Birr 3.1 million (84.0%) is in foreign currancy. LIST OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT FOR FATTENING FARM. The total area required for fattening farm is about 5000 m2. Building area of 620 m2 and shade area of 1250 m2 are required. The total cost buildings and civil works at the rate of Birr 1,500 per m2 for the building and Birr 1000 per m2 for the shade is estimated at Birr 2,180,000. On the other hand, the total cost of land lease at the rate of Birr 1.2 per m2 and for 95 years of land holding is estimated at Birr 570,000. The location can be Gode or Jigjiga, where there is an easy foreign and local market Manpower required and the corresponding labour cost for the envisaged project is indicated MANPOWER REQUIREMENT AND ANNUAL LABOUR COST No special training is required for the envisaged project VII. The financial analysis of the Cattle Fattening project is based on the data presented in the previous chapters and the following assumptions:- Based on estimated lease rate of the region The total initial investment cost of the project including working capital is estimated at about Birr 12.86 million, out of which 26 per cent will be required in foreign currency. For details The annual production cost at full operation capacity of the plant is estimated at Birr 12 million (see Table 7.2). The material and utility cost accounts for 8 per cent while repair and maintenance take 1.52 per cent of the production cost. * Pre-production expenditure include interest during construction (Birr1.12 million) and cost of registration, licensing and formation of the company including legal fees, According to the projected income statement, the project will start generating profit in the first year of operation. Important ratios such as profit to total sales, net profit to equity (Return on equity) and net profit plus interest on total investment (return on total investment) show an increasing trend during the life-time of the project. The income statement and the other indicators of profitability show that the project is viable. The break-even point of the project is estimated by using income statement projection. The investment cost and income statement projection are used to project the pay-back period. The project's initial investment will be fully recovered within 5 years. Internal Rate of Return and Net Present Value Based on the cashflow statement, the calculated IRR of the project is 29% and the net present value at 10.5% discount rate is Birr 14 million. The project can create employment for 36 persons. In addition to supply of the domestic needs, the project will generate Birr 15 million interms of tax revenue. The establishment of such factory will have a foreign exchange saving effect to the country by substituting the

Source: http://www.ethemb.se/TEXT%20files/profile%20for%20Fattening%20farm.pdf

Footnotes_v6-clarified5-1-04.doc

B. Footnotes, Version VI ( Clarified ) A. Dobutamine: 1. Start at 5 mcg/kg/min and increase by 5 mcg/kg/min increments at 15 minute intervals until ineffective circulation reversed (CI greater than or equal to 2.5 for PAC or fewer than 3 physical findings of ineffective circulation for CVP) or maximum dose of 20 mcg/kg/min reached. 2. Begin weaning 4 hours after ineffective cir

Microsoft word - planning before your surgery.doc

Planning Before Your Surgery Special Tests It is most likely that you have already had x-rays by your family doctor or in our clinic. If necessary, you may have to undergo other tests such as an arthrogram, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), EMG (electromyography), etc. Pre-Operative Physical Therapy Many patients have had a trial of physical therapy as part of their prior treatment.

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