CAS Registry No.:
For long term storage, we suggest that zaprinast be stored as supplied at -20°C. It should be stable for at least one
Zaprinast is supplied as a crystalline solid. A stock solution may be made by dissolving the zaprinast in an organic solvent
purged with an inert gas. Zaprinast is soluble in organic solvents such as DMSO and dimethyl formamide (DMF). The
solubility of zaprinast in these solvents is approximately 10 mg/ml.
Zaprinast is sparingly soluble in aqueous buffers. For maximum solubility in aqueous buffers, zaprinast should first
be dissolved in DMF and then diluted with the aqueous buffer of choice. Zaprinast has a solubility of approximately
0.5 mg/ml in a 1:1 solution of DMF:PBS (pH 7.2) using this method. We do not recommend storing the aqueous solution
The cyclic nucleotide second messenger guanosine 3’5’-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) is an important mediator of
signal transduction and hence a wide range of cellular processes. It can be generated by soluble guanylyl cyclase in response
to binding of nitric oxide and degraded via
members of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) protein family. Zaprinast, the
compound from which sildenafil (Viagra™) was developed, is a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It moderately
inhibits PDE5 and PDE6 with IC50 values of 0.5-0.76 and 0.15 µM, respectively, and weakly inhibits PDE9, PDE10, and
PDE11 with IC50 values of 35, 22, and 11-33 µM, respectively.1,2 Zaprinast therefore enhances the vasodilatory effects
of nitric oxide in a range of vascular tissues by prolonging the cGMP-mediated activation of cGMP-dependent protein
kinase.2 Zaprinast also activates both the rat and human G protein-coupled receptor, GPR35 with EC50 values of 16 nM
1. Nakamizo, T., Kawamata, J., Yoshida, K., et al.
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are neuroprotective to cultured spinal
motor neurons. J. Neurosci. Res. 71
, 485-495 (2003).
2. Gibson, A. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and nitrergic transmission-from zaprinast to sildenafil. Eur. J. Pharmacol.
, 1-10 (2001).
3. Taniguchi, Y., Tonai-Kachi, H., and Shinjo, K. Zaprinast, a well-known cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific
phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is an agonist for GPR35. FEBS Lett. 580
, 5003-5008 (2006).
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dIAGNosTIc oR TheRApeuTIc use.
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This material should be considered hazardous until information to the contrary becomes available. Do not ingest, swallow, or inhale. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Wash thoroughly
after handling. This information contains some, but not all, of the information required for the safe and proper use of this material. Before use, the user must review the complete Material Safety Data
Sheet, which has been sent via
email to your institution.
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World Food System Challenges and Opportunities: GMOs, Biodiversity, and Lessons from America’s Heartland Charles M. Benbrook, PhD.1 Abstract Most people accept that world food production must grow at a steady pace inorder to meet the twin challenges of population growth and economic development. Nearly all productive land is already growing food and water resources accessible to
Rifaximin versus Other Antibiotics in the Primary Treatmentand Retreatment of Bacterial Overgrowth in IBSJanet Yang Æ Hyo-Rang Lee Æ Kimberly Low ÆSoumya Chatterjee Æ Mark PimentelReceived: 13 November 2006 / Accepted: 5 April 2007 / Published online: 23 May 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007Previous studies demonstrate improvement inantibiotics in the treatment and retreat