Crime Prevention in Germany Selected examples of projects in the „Infopool Prevention“ database Kriminalistisch-kriminologische Forschungsgruppe
Crime Prevention in GermanySelected examples of projects in the „Infopool Prevention“ database
Information from theResearch and Training Division
______________________________________ Bundeskriminalamt (ed.) Crime Prevention in Germany Selected examples of projects in the „Infopool Prevention“ database ______________________________________
Jörg BässmannKI 14 - Police Crime Prevention
Reprinting or duplication of this material, including excerpts, permitted only if the source isnamed and approval is obtained from the Bundeskriminalamt
The main reasons for setting up a collection of information on crime prevention - the„Infopool Prevention“ - at the Bundeskriminalamt in 1995 were to promote more efficientplanning of crime prevention projects by establishing a collection of relevant information, tocreate a network for contacts between planners and practitioners in the field of crimeprevention, and to use resources more economically by providing access to information aboutcrime prevention projects.
The main purposes of the „Infopool Prevention“ are the systematic and long-term collectionof information on crime prevention projects that are recommendable and worthy of imitation,the documentation of these projects on the basis of established standards, and making thisinformation accessible to a broader public rather than limiting it to police circles. Similar to areporting service, information about German crime prevention projects is collected in closecooperation with the police forces of the German states and the Federal ministries. International approaches to crime prevention are documented by examining the relevantliterature, searching the Internet, and reviewing material presented at conferences. The resultsare disseminated in book form and through the Internet (http://www.bka.de).
Because the initial evaluation situation in Germany was unsatisfactory, decisions about whichprojects to include in the documentation databases are based on pragmatic criteria rather thanon purely scientific standards. This approach to documentation used for the „InfopoolPrevention“ is intentionally designated as „good practice oriented“. Due to this qualityorientation in crime prevention, the share of projects in the documentation evaluated byoutside parties has continued to grow. The intense discussion of evaluation issues - which hasbeen going on in Germany for some time and has already led to preparation of an evaluationguide at the police level - will ensure further qualitative improvements in the future as well. Even today most of the documented projects are being evaluated internally on the basis oftheir success, even though such projects could serve as models for systematic crimeprevention due to their problem or goal orientation, their highly consistent implementation, orthe innovative approaches taken.
For the first time the Bundeskriminalamt has now compiled in the English language a small,but wide-ranging, selection of German crime prevention projects that have all been evaluated,i.e. have been reviewed with reference to goal achievement and/or impact. The spectrumranges from local projects, e.g. to improve the subjective feeling of security by ensuringgreater police presence („Stadtwache Bielefeld“) or to motivate the population to help andthus reduce the „look away“ phenomenon („Campaign 'Violence - Awareness - Help'“), toprojects at state level that deal with xenophobia („How to get away from right-wingextremism“) or the suppression of juvenile delinquency („Juvenile Delinquency PreventionProgram“) - all the way to projects at national level („Integration by Means of Sports“).
Head of the Research and Training Division
Table of contents Drugs / Addiction. 8 Feeling of Security . 11 Juvenile Delinquency / Protection of Minors . 13
House of Youth Law. 13Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Program (JKPP) . 16Cooperation between the Police, Youth Welfare Services and Social WelfareServices (PJS) – A Joint Project of the City of Nuremberg and of the NurembergPolice Headquarters. 19PIT - Prevention through Teamwork (1 + 2) . 22
Neighborhood / Living Conditions . 25 Offenses against Property. 27 Public Areas (incl. public transport) . 29 Victim Help / Victim Protection. 32
Witness Counseling at the Local and Regional Courts of Düsseldorf. 32
Violence . 35
BERLIN Model: Neighborhood-Oriented Violence and Crime Prevention. 35Self-Assurance/Self-Determination Training for Girls at Schools in North-Rhine-Westphalia. 38
Witness and Helper Behavior. 42
Campaign „Violence - Awareness - Help“. 42
Xenophobia . 44
How to get away from right-wing extremism. 44
Drugs / Addiction Night Events Organization
In Paderborn a working group „Addiction and Resettlers“ has been established with thecooperation of the Commissioner's Prevention Office. After evaluating addiction problems ofyoung resettlers the decision has been taken to offer a number of sports events to youngpeople from a „socially endangered“ part of the town on Saturdays between 7:30 p.m. and12:00 p.m.
The ideas and the preparatory measures have been supported by the young members of theSportverband Paderborn (sports club) who as partners of a sponsoring program of the StateSports Organization have been offering so-called „night events“ since November 1998 undera model project and from 1999 on as regular activities. Attention to these events has primarilybeen drawn by handouts and posters. The handouts have mainly been distributed directly tothe young people by social workers and also the teachers of the schools in the area. Theposters have been put up at focal points of the pertinent quarters and at the schools. Localmedia have also advertised these events.
In addition to the Commissioner's Prevention Office the Sports and Youth Office of the Cityof Paderborn, the sports clubs, the Catholic College, the Youth and Children's Center, theCaritas Association, the Addiction Aid Organization, the IN VIA youth organization and theSports Science Institute of the University of Paderborn have cooperated.
The city pays for personnel (three to four) and material - to include the insurance fees fortwelve events per year - an amount of approx. EURO 3,000.
The „Sportjugend Nordrhein-Westfalen“ is willing to organize widely varying sports eventsfor participation of young people in endangered city quarters thus offering alternative andmeaningful leisure activities. This offer is conceived as permanent commitment to preventaddiction and the use of violence.
The target group of „night events“ offered in a „Jugend-SPOrt-Treff“ are young people andyoung resettlers of both sexes from endangered city quarters. The invitation was mainlyaddressed to young people who do usually not or only rarely join traditional sports clubsbecause this type of „organized“ sports does not mean anything to them.
The „Jugend-SPOrt-Treff“ mainly aims at the following targets:
• to meet the new leisure requirements of the young people,• to offer the young people a meaningful, attractive and no-cost leisure program,
• to get the young people off the streets,• to make a gymnasium available to the young people in which they can exercise,• to make the „Jugend-SPOrt-Treff“ a meeting place for young people of varying
• to offer the young people a reliable and continuous program.
The events are always announced as alcohol and drug free sports events and are organizedunder these premises. Results / Experiences
The suburbs of Lieth and Kaukenberg in the south of Paderborn were chosen for theseactivities. Due to the arrival of a great number of resettlers and also of people from othercountries very noticeable integration problems and social tensions have developed in thesesuburbs.
During the model phase a great number of games such as basketball, soccer and Badmintonwere offered and tested one after the other in a gymnasium in Lieth during all events. Startingwith the fourth event all three games were offered simultaneously. This free choice was toprompt the young people to organize themselves, e.g. by constituting teams, exchange teammembers, etc. A professional disc jockey gave the entire event a musical setting. The youngpeople could voice their musical predilections at any time and/or bring along their own CDs.
The concerns of the cooperation partners (in particular of the police) of this model projectwith view to potential problems with drunk or aggressive youth proved to be unjustified. Consequently the police reduced their personnel and only detailed one officer per event.
Approx. 90 mainly young resettlers participate in the Paderborn „Night Events“ which areregularly organized once a month. By the end of the model phase participation of girls couldbe raised to 20 p.c. The age of the participants ranged between 12 and 17 years during themodel phase, and among them those aged between 16 and 17 were most numerous. The agegroup between 18 and 21 did not follow suit which is probably due to the fact that the agerange was too large for the older ones and that this group is frequently already mobile andable to take up other leisure activities (discos, etc.).
There was no type of violence (physical or material) observed in the gymnasium nor in theneighborhood. Conflicts which originated from the games were settled by discussions.
The requested feedback from the young people was positive and culminated in statementssuch as „This was super“, „I wish such events would be organized more frequently“, „. onother weekends I was bored. This was a fantastic offer“. The positive response of the youngpeople was also reflected by the fact that many of them attended regularly. There were nonegative statements, but only the wish to organize such an event every week.
The social workers were also pleased that the otherwise difficult to motivate youngster haveimmediately responded well to this offer. Inhibitions disappeared comparatively quickly.
The experiences in cooperating with other partners were very positive.
A welcome result for the police was that inhibitions with regard to contacts between theyoung people and the police could be reduced. Due to his regular participation the youngpeople know the police officer so that in talks more than only job-related topics wereaddressed. By offering this point of contact the relations between (foreign) youth and thepolice could be put on more confidential terms.
The integration project was awarded the first prize endowed with DM 3,000 (approx. EURO1,500) for preventing xenophobia, violence and misanthropy in the County of Paderborn in2001. Further information may be obtained from
Polizeibehörde Paderborn, Kommissariat Vorbeugung, Sucht- und Drogenprävention,Aldegrever Strasse 16, D-33102 Paderborn. Feeling of Security Voluntary Police Service of Hesse Organization
Since October 2000 a total of 90 voluntary helpers of both sexes have been involved in a trialrun, i.e. the Voluntary Police Service of Hesse.
With the enactment of the law on active involvement of the citizens to increase internalsecurity (Hessisches Freiwilligen-Polizeidienst-Gesetz – HFPG) on 13 June 2000 theVoluntary Police Service was assigned tasks and responsibilities. The law expresses the aim:„Make one's presence felt – observe – report“.
The law provides that members of the Voluntary Police Service question persons, notepersonal data, send off people and have suspicious objects removed. Apprehension is onlyallowed IAW the „rights of everyone“.
Training and briefing to prepare for this voluntary service lasts at least 50 hours and is doneby police officers only during their off-duty hours. Members of the Voluntary Police Servicedo not carry weapons, but only pepper spray to protect themselves. In addition they undergo ashort self-defense course. They can be recognized due their blue jacket with the emblem and alabel inscribed „Voluntary Police Service“ and blue headgear.
Citizens aged between 21 and 63 can apply for this service. The head of the competent policeauthority is responsible for the selection. The expense allowance is EURO 7 per person/hour.
Among the many activities which showed interest the following project locations were chosenfor testing the Voluntary Police Service:
• Police Headquarters Osthessen with 20 volunteers• Police Headquarters Mittelhessen with 20 volunteers• Police Headquarters Südosthessen with 20 volunteers• Police Headquarters Westhessen with 30 volunteers.
The Voluntary Police Service`s task is not primarily to relieve the police of their workload butto demonstrate presence in areas which cannot be patrolled by the police to the extent desired(e.g. public transport, pedestrian areas, public festivals). The members of this service are toserve as additional contact persons for the citizens. In addition they give valuable supportwithin their area of responsibility to
• preventive measures against offenses,• control road traffic,
• police patrol and investigation,• investigation of breach of regulations. Results / Experiences
The pilot phase ended on 31 Dec 2001. The experience was very positive. The activities of theVoluntary Police Service increase safety of the population and relieve the police frompreventive tasks.
The final report of the Institut für Kriminologie at the Justus-Liebig-Universität servingevaluation of the pilot project has on the whole been positively rated. The study revealednothing which speaks against the continuation of the Voluntary Police Service project.
In March 2002 a coordination agreement between the federal state of Hesse and the countycapital of Bad Hersfeld was concluded on deployment of the Voluntary Police Service (inwhich the funds to be contributed by the City of Bad Hersfeld were determined).
Parallel to the cooperation between the State of Hesse and the County Capital of Bad Hersfeldseveral cities and communities have voiced their interest in the introduction of the VoluntaryPolice Service. In addition the association of cities and communities has published thecoordination agreement in its „Eildienst“ (express information letter).
At a press conference on 16 July 2002 the Hessian Minister of the Interior announced that thealready existing Voluntary Police Service will continuously be expanded. The focus would beon cooperation between the cities and communities all over Hesse in a project in which thepolice organization will select, train and employ volunteers for whose expense allowances thecommunities are responsible. Additional Information
Hessisches Ministerium des Inneren und für Sport, III B 32, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 12, D-65185 Wiesbaden
Juvenile Delinquency / Protection of Minors House of Youth Law Organization
The pilot project „House of Youth Law“ was initiated by a working group staffed byrepresentatives of the Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt Court, the Stuttgart Public Prosecutor, theBaden- Württemberg capital of Stuttgart and the Stuttgart police on 16 November 1997 as„Stuttgart Response“ to increasing juvenile delinquency.
The model project was limited to three years.
Since 1 June 1999 the police, public prosecutor and the assistance in court for young peopleorganization cooperate „under one roof“ linked up to the nearby Stuttgart-Bad CannstattCourt.
By having the competent authorities network, shorter proceedings are expected. Furthermorethe young delinquents get an immediate, adequate response to their offense which has beencoordinated by the authorities involved.
Prosecution is not the only work accomplished in the House of Youth Law, but the staff focuson offering support for problem-stricken or endangered young people of the project area.
Cooperation with non-government sponsors of youth welfare institutions and schools isessential.
Cooperation with the schools could be intensified because funds from donations becameavailable to employ a part-time social worker (50%) in 2001.
The focus is on conflict management, search for the motives, counseling and support in talkswith parents and on offering professional pedagogic support. In addition they prepare lessonblocks or project days related to such topics as violence, conflict solving, social competence,etc. and implement the inhouse „KripS“ project (crime prevention in schools).
Scientific studies have been conducted by the Sozialpädagogische Forschung Mainz e.V. allalong. These studies are funded by the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens,Youth and Women.
Due to its flexible basic concept this unique model project may be updated at any time andoffers the possibility to introduce new, innovating procedures in criminal prosecution and alsoin prevention.
This project aims at responding adequately under a joint strategy to wrongdoings of childrenand adolescents by quick and networked cooperation of the state supervisory authorities. Measures of the individual organizations are harmonized and implemented one after the other
in a timely manner. Focus is not on punishment, but on individual support for the sociallynon-compliant child or the young offender.
At daily meetings the public prosecutor will be briefed on the new incidents reported to thepolice. Consequently he can more strongly influence the investigations than so far and arrangefor the early intervention of the assistance in court for young people organization. If urgentlyneeded so-called „case conferences“ will be scheduled. With all respect for the Privacy Actinformation is exchanged and the measures to be taken by the individual authorities arecoordinated. As a rule the delinquent and his/her parents are involved in the coordinationprocess.
An integral part of cooperation is the monthly „house conference“. The authorities involvedrotate chairmanship. As a rule the entire staff of the assistance in court for young peopleorganization participate in these events. They mainly serve to address joint organizational andtopical problems. This is how contributions of the individual authorities are harmonized,follow-up concepts are developed and focal topics are determined.
As part of this project the PENGA project – Perspectives after work beneficial to thecommunity / job perspectives for young offenders – has been developed to provide for theintegration of young people in working life.
It aims at giving young offenders under the age of 21 after having accomplished workbeneficial to the community a job perspective by informing them on jobs, training or follow-up training opportunities. Results / Experiences
After 3 ½ years the model project was terminated. The institution as such will continue toexist for an unlimited period of time and be run as a project.
• the time needed for proceedings are shorter,• educational punishment was more frequently taken recourse to,• the residence principle should consequently be applied during proceeding of juvenile
With view to shorter proceeding it was found out that processing time from notification by thepolice until the court trial (First Instance) was shortened by 63%. Proceedings which still took230 days in 1998 (prior to the start of the project) did not last longer than 86 days by the endof the project. Time saving was even more striking if looking at the processing times of thepublic prosecutor. His office could reduce processing time by more than 80%, i.e. in 1998 ittook 52 days to handle a case whereas at the end of the project work could be accomplished inless than 10 days.
Due to changed police responsibilities which are now defined according to the „residenceprinciple“ all offenses of children, youngsters and adolescents living in the pertinent areas ofresponsibility will be dealt with by the youth project police officers in the „House of YouthLaw“ independent from the place in Stuttgart at which the offense was committed. Theadvantage is that the police know their „customers“ and their family and social backgrounds.
In cooperation with the public prosecutor and the youth welfare organization they can nowtake more purposeful countermeasures for endangered children and adolescents who arealready at the threshold of criminal careers. This also definitely contributes to the quickerclarification of the circumstances of delinquency series.
The „House of Youth Law“ does not only deal with offenders, but also with the victims. Bynow 38% of all compensation cases between offenders and victims from Stuttgart are settledin the „House of Youth Law“.
For further details refer to the final scientific report under the headline „Das Haus desJugendrechts in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt - Ergebnisse einer Evaluation“. Additional Information
Projektbüro „Haus des Jugendrechts“ (Project Office of the „House of Youth Law“),
Juvenile Delinquency / Protection of Minors Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Program (JKPP) Organization
Since the numbers of child and juvenile delinquencies are on the rise, the Thuringia Ministryfor Social Affairs, Women and Health (TMSFG) and the Ministry of the Interior of theFederal State of Thuringia have decided to implement a joint juvenile delinquency preventionprogram in spring 1997. Initially this model project was limited to three years. It was startedin October 1997 and eventually prolonged by one year, i.e. terminated by the end of 2001. Itwas conceived for systematic and purposeful cooperation between the youth welfareorganizations and the police taking the pertinent functions and tasks of these organizations inthe field of prevention work into account.
The counties of Nordhausen, Altenburg and Saalfeld-Rudolfstadt as well as the cities notassociated with counties of Erfurt, Weimar, Jena, Gera (since March 1998) and Eisenach(since January 1999) have been chosen as model cities due to their delinquency rates(revealed by the police criminal statistics).
In the model regions the program is being implemented six times by non-governmentorganizations and twice under the guidance of the local youth office. Eight male/femalecoordinators have been engaged with fixed-term employment contracts for the duration of theproject.
For control a „steering group“ as well as a „Juvenile Delinquency Prevention WorkingGroup“ have been established at state level.
TMSFG provides the funds for paying personnel and material in the eight model cities.
The Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth provides thefunds for scientific assessment of the field work, evaluation and transfer of lessons learned.
The four main objectives of the model project are:
• to evaluate effective concepts for the reliable cooperation between youth welfare• organizations and the police to prevent children and adolescents from committing crimes,• to test suitable relief services for endangered or noncompliant children and adolescents
under the umbrella of the youth welfare services stressing the principle of voluntaryparticipation,
• to provide follow-up training and qualification of youth welfare services staff and police
• simultaneous transfer of lessons learned to target group-oriented projects, youth welfare
offices and police headquarters in other regions.
After negotiating a joint course of action and ideas how to implement the project the youthwelfare organizations have established contact points in the model cities for theimplementation of the first objective. These contact points are staffed with coordinators whoare the direct contact persons of the local police headquarters. These contact points havemainly been collocated with youth institutions and have essentially been tasked – if required -with counseling children and adolescents on a voluntary basis and to support those who havebeen heard and/or questioned by the police. Should educational help or alternative leisureprograms be needed, the coordinators at the contact points will make the pertinent offers. Sufficient networking with other youth welfare programs and services (e.g. assistance fordelinquents, projects of youth and school social work organizations, cultural programs of theGeneral Social Services, etc.), other institutions (schools, sports clubs, etc.) and local crimeprevention counselors is also attempted.
Delinquent and/or noncompliant children and adolescents who have come to the attention ofthe police will be informed that personal counseling is available. They should be given detailson counseling hours of the above contact points and be motivated to make use of this offer ona (strictly) voluntary basis.
For realization of the second goal the contact points will contact the families of the youngstersand inform them that counsel is provided. Should additional support be required, the contactpoints must make sure that suitable assistance and offers are made available to the individualyoungsters. Networking is a precondition for including the youngsters in the existingprograms of the youth welfare and other organizations (e.g. sports clubs). In addition thecontact points will inform the police of the number of youngster who seek their support uponpolice recommendation.
Implementation of the third and fourth goals aims at promoting the professional competenceof the responsible authorities already during the model project period by means of follow-uptraining and workshops thus initiating an exchange of lessons learned with other projects andinstitutions (target group-oriented projects, youth offices, schools, school authorities, policeheadquarters). Results / Experiences
The model project revealed that the group of children and adolescents classified brutal orserial offenders is smaller than assumed. The percentage in the cities chosen ranges between 4and 8%.
If summarizing the lessons learned the ISS can establish the following interim results:
• Contact and cooperation between the youth welfare organizations and the police is
possible. It will be supported by systematic joint follow-up training with externalmoderators.
• The reporting channels between police and Youth Office could be optimized. An
improved reporting form to transmit information to the Youth Office has been preparedIAW Police Service Regulation 382.
• Cooperation agreements have been concluded in all the project cities. • The present framework conditions of the police for dealing with juvenile delinquency are
not the best. The great number of suspects (children and adolescents) can – as a rule – notbe handled by their juvenile delinquency project officer alone. This fact does notguarantee optimum cooperation between the police and the youth assistance organizationbecause there are too many contact points.
• Future cooperation between the police and the youth assistance organization must get
schools and judiciary more strongly involved.
• The youth assistance organizations still need to learn how to handle police reports in a
more systematic and efficient fashion.
• The reporting channels between the youth assistance organizations and the police are to be
improved in a similar fashion as in the model project cities. Additional Information
Institut für Sozialarbeit und Sozialpädagogik e.V. (ISS), Landesbüro Thüringen / Sachsen-Anhalt, Thomas-Mann- Strasse 13a, D-07743 Jena
Juvenile Delinquency / Protection of Minors Cooperation between the Police, Youth Welfare Services and Social Welfare Services (PJS) – A Joint Project of the City of Nuremberg and of the Nuremberg Police Headquarters Organization
The model project „Cooperation between the Police, Youth Welfare Services and SocialWelfare Services“ was initiated with the financial support of the Bavarian State Ministry ofEmployment and Social Affairs, Family, Women and Health, the Bavarian Ministry of theInterior, the City of Nuremberg and the Nuremberg Police Headquarters on 1 March 1998. The project was planned to run for five years.
The focus of the model project is on two topics:
• improve cooperation between the police and social welfare authorities,• improve the crisis relief systems.
The team addressing the first topic comprises an educational scientist of the General SocialServices, an educational scientist for open children and youth work of the Youth Office and apolice officer of the Nuremberg Police Headquarters. An additional educational scientist ofthe General Social Services deals with crisis relief. Every team member remains under thecontrol of the detaching authority.
The project to improve cooperation between the police and the social services is primarilyaiming at establishing indelible, non-personalized and reliable cooperation andcommunication networks between the social services of the city (primarily between the YouthOffice and the social services). This is mandatory because the members of the twoorganizations are dealing with the same topics and the same persons (i.e. violence in families,child and juvenile delinquency, drug addiction and pertinent effects, psychosocial andpsychiatric crises with suicidal penchant, neglect, etc.).
Since due to ignorance and/or reservations every organization dealt isolatedly with these casesin the past, a new awareness was to be developed by taking recourse to the expert knowledgeand measures used by the other specialists.
New cooperation aims with regard to this primary topic have evolved:
The most important precondition for cooperation is to know the cooperation partner, i.e. the organization, accessibility, job background, working methods and goals must beknown. Thus the possibilities and limits of cooperation are visible for the partners. This
basic knowledge will also be communicated at information meetings at different levelsand during joint follow-up training sessions.
• Establishment of cooperative relations
The establishment of cooperative relations between the authorities and divisionsconcerned has a decisive impact on the sustainability of the cooperation. The project is toinitiate cooperation, to convince the cooperation partners of its usefulness and to prepareregulations which will ensure long-term cooperation.
Improved cooperation will trigger changes in the course of action. The people involvedwill notice the change and this in turn will make them aware of the need to cooperate. Thefollowing changes will be listed as examples: offender-oriented case management by thepolice in cases of juvenile delinquency and violence in the social neighborhood, quickinformation transmission to the competent ASD personnel by using the PC supportedASD street data file at police headquarters/stations.
• Preparation/provision of work and information material for cooperation
The leaflets and information publications which have been prepared can on the one handbe used for information collection and on the other to support cooperation of the partners(among others the leaflet informing on the youth institutions for the police, city map withthe areas of responsibility of the social services and police headquarters, guidelines forbriefings on the ASD at the police headquarters).
• Optimization of the topics selected for cooperation
Closer cooperation in selected areas is initiated in the framework of the project, thepartners get better information on the relevant topics which enables them to determineexactly the possibilities and limits of their contribution. The preparation of writtendocumentation on these topics enhances the ability to deal with specific cases on bothsides and improves the quality of cooperation (e.g. cooperation between police, judiciaryand social workers in the field of sexual abuse).
• Incorporation of these topics into the training schedules
An essential aim is to incorporate the publications, methods and aims in the curriculae ofthe social science colleges and the Präsidium der Bayerischen Bereitschaftspolizei. Results / Experiences
The above topics result – among others – from the lessons learned from the model projectsimplemented in the various fields of activity and also comprise some of the results obtainedfrom the PJS activities. This becomes particularly evident from the changes in the proceduralflow. Not only the PJS, but also individual and regionally cooperating activities meet toexchange lessons learned and information. During joint follow-up training the specialists getto know each other which facilitates networking. An exchange of personnel and thesubsequent input of the information obtained and lessons learned at the other activity hasproved very valuable.
Improvement of cooperation can hardly be planned case-dependent, but must evolve from acombined course of action. This is why the improvements which have been made so farcannot be „measured“, but talks with the personnel involved testified to this new quality.
The second aim, i.e. improvement of the crisis relief systems aims at providing the requiredhelp in a sufficiently competent way at the time and place needed for the individual citizensby involving the competent services.
In Nuremberg an attempt is made to improve this system by open discussions about supportstructures tailored to the demands.
The exchange of ideas takes place between the institutions and activities which are availablearound the clock as points of contact for the entire population (police, fire brigade, hospitals,church telephone counseling) and social counseling services for specific target groups(children, juveniles, women, homeless persons, drug addicts, mentally ill persons) which canbe contacted at various times by those needing help.
The basis for demand-oriented improvements are the results of an analysis of the crisis reliefsystem to which the above activities have contributed.
Detailed information pertaining to the model project as well as all the relevant workingmateriel and leaflets are accessible via the internet address www.sicherheitspakt.nuernberg.deand can be downloaded. Additional Information
Polizeidirektion Nürnberg, Jakobsplatz 5, 90402 Nürnberg
Juvenile Delinquency / Protection of Minors PIT - Prevention through Teamwork (1 + 2) Organization
The project „PIT – Prevention through Teamwork“ was developed in 1996 in the Council forCrime Prevention of the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein by educational scientists,psychologists and police officers for students aged 12 to approx. 14/15 attending generalschools. The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Culture of the federal state ofSchleswig-Holstein makes this concept available to schools for implementation. For actualimplementation in the schools the Schleswig-Holstein Institute of Practice and Theory inSchools (IPTS) is responsible. Coordination within the police force is the task of the LandOffice of Criminal Investigation, HSG 130, Central Agency for Crime Prevention.
The „PIT“ project is a program implemented in schools for the prevention of crime. Teachersand police officers, but also external drug counselors organize the program with the studentsof the 6th and 8th grades following relevant instruction. They undergo training (in a team)during a number of days. A pertinent folder (including a video and audio cassette) is alsoavailable. Parents are informed and subsequently notified of the results.
• to promote the development of „social skills“ by teaching the students ways in which
• to make children and young people aware of the dangers and consequences of criminal
• to reduce the offenses committed by children and/or by which children are victimized• to engage teachers who will address „juvenile delinquency“ in an interdisciplinary fashion• to enhance the sensitivity of the students for the danger to get addicted• to improve the social climate in the class.
The project is implemented in four phases:
• The educational scientists choose one of three crime-related subjects (violence, theft,
addiction) and provide general information on the subject in lessons (at least four hours).
• In the second phase, the subject is dealt with in greater depth, starting off where the
subject chosen in step one left off. It is presented by the officers of the local auxiliarypolice or criminal police and/or drug counselors on the basis of their personal professional
experience. Additional information is provided to deal more extensively with the subjectmatter (at least three hours).
• The third phase serves to stress values and to develop the students' personality and ability
to interact (at least five hours). In order to ensure that the positive interaction experiencehas a long-term effect, it is necessary to establish framework conditions. To this endagreements on the rules of coexistence are important. It also matters that these rules arecomplied with and that compliance is supervised. This phase is not subject to any timelimit. Results / Experiences
The school prevention policy „PIT“ has been available in schools in Schleswig-Holstein since1996 (as of June 2002). So far 228 general schools and a total of 301 educational scientistshave taken part in the project. 272 police officers underwent training in the modules that areavailable. Meanwhile „PIT“ has become an integral part of the prevention work in schools inSchleswig-Holstein. The project has been taken over by a few other federal states such asRhineland-Palatinate, Lower Saxony and Bavaria.
The project was academically supported by the Institute of Therapy and Health Research(IFT-Nord) in Kiel during the test phase in 1996. The evaluation report states that „PIT“comprises elements the positive prevention effects of which could unequivocally beconfirmed by other programs. An additional regional process evaluation was made in Kiel in1999.
In Bavaria the „PIT“ is academically supported by the Staatsinstitut für Schulpädagogik undBildungsforschung and the Criminological Research Group of the Bavarian Police at the LandOffice of Criminal Investigation.
The „PIT“ version of Rhineland-Palatinate was tested in various types of schools in the schoolyear 1999/2000 and evaluated by the Sociology Institute of the Mainz University. Thepertinent results have been published in the Internet under www.pz.bildung-rp.de.
„PIT“ 2 – Prevention in a Team in Elementary Schools
Another project was prepared for the 1st to 4th grades of elementary schools in 2000(prevention in a team in elementary schools – „PIT“ 2) by another working group of theCouncil for Crime Prevention (WG 7.2). „PIT“ 2 is aiming at sponsoring social skills inelementary schools. This project focuses on living with conflicts since conflicts are thetouchstones for social competence. The Schleswig-Holstein Institute of Praxis and Theory inSchools (IPTS) was in charge of the organization. No special training is required for teachingthe lessons. The IPTS offers one-day regional introduction courses.
Interested police officers and educational scientists are made familiar with the subject matterat police headquarters level.
Since spring 2001 a manual is available for the lessons (may be obtained from the IPTS atEURO 5 each). The manual contains exercises for the classes. All the exercises are suited forinsertion in the normal curriculum and do not necessitate major changes of the curriculum. Inaddition a model lesson addressing thirteen topics in eight steps with the description of
different situations is offered. The cases taken from everyday school life are shortly describedand contain essential questions for all the discussion partners. Further information anddiscussion inputs are listed for the police. The cases range from shoplifting to propertydamage and from insult to violence on school buses. The parents are always fully informedand invited to cooperate. At the regional level the prevention project officers of the policeheadquarters are in charge of police participation in the project.
For further information on the projects „PIT“ 1 and 2 (to include an information flyer) refer tothe Internet under http://www.polizei.schleswig-holstein.de. Additional Information
Landesinstitut Schleswig-Holstein für Praxis und Theorie der Schule (IPTS), Schreberweg 5,24119 Kronshagen
Neighborhood / Living Conditions Integration by Means of Sports Organization
The project „Integration by Sports“ was implemented in 1989 (at that time under thedesignation „Sports with Resettlers“) under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of theInterior (Bundesministerium des Innern - BMI) and sponsorship of the German SportsAssociation (Deutscher Sportbund – DSB) as a model project for the integration of resettlers. It started out in four model regions, namely Berlin, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia andLower Saxony. In 1990 it was extended to all the old Länder and in 1991 finally to the fivenew Länder. Since 1994 the project has been integrated in the structures of the memberorganizations of the 16 Land sports associations.
At the federal level, the DSB is in charge of coordination for its member organizations. Theindividual member organizations each adapt the structures of the program to the specialrequirements of their Land. Nationwide the following personnel is involved in theimplementation: a federal coordinator, 50 Land and regional coordinators under contract;approx. 700 helpers are engaged on a free-lance basis to get the program going and approx. 750 „teamers“ and several hundred honorary helpers contribute. Furthermore, 460 sportscenters („Stützpunktvereine“) get support and more than 1,000 cooperative clubs(„Kooperationsvereine“) and numerous social work institutions are engaged in the program.
The project is financed to about 93% by integration funds from the Federal Ministry of theInterior. The rest is financed to varying degrees by Länder programs and resources of theparticipating member organizations themselves.
The project aims directly at the social integration of ethnic German resettlers in Germany byintegrating them into local communities. This approach aims at increasing their chances ofgaining access to the world of sports and sports organizations. For the implementation of thisconcept a dual approach has been chosen, i.e. to facilitate contacts between resettlers andsports clubs on the one hand and to make sports clubs more sensitive to their integration taskson the other.
Because of xenophobic attacks against resettlers and foreigners the project has been initiatedin 2001 under the motto „Integration through Sports“ to make use of the integrative andpreventive influence of sports. Not only young foreigners are increasingly involved in theproject, but also another target group, i.e. young people from an underprivileged background.
Since the project start in 1989 integration funds amounting to more than 63 million EUROmade available by the Federal Ministry of the Interior have been spent. A total of approx. 5.7million EURO will be made available for the extended project in fiscal year 2003. The
additional funds will be used for urgent social remedy, - in particular for the new Länderwhere young resettles and foreigners live side by side with underprivileged Germanyoungsters.
There are plans to get other organizations more involved in the „Integration through Sports“project and to establish local integration networks thus producing a resource-savingsynergistic effect. Results / Experiences
Several hundred thousand people participate in this project every year and thus considerablycontribute to the integration of resettlers. In 2002 thousands of individual measures (inparticular sportsmobile tours, holiday camps, vacation activities in the home town and otherindividual events) were organized by sports centers. The main goal was to remove the wallsof isolation and to make them join the sports clubs in order to integrate them into local sociallife.
The Gesellschaft für Innovationsfoschung und Beratung (Association for Innovation Researchand Counseling – GIB) has evaluated the integration project conducted by the Ministry of theInterior. A special evaluation of the sponsored projects concludes that support of the„Integration through Sports“ project is beneficial, especially in places where participation ofresettlers in existing activities or increased acceptance of resettler is the integration aim.
The analysis of measures implemented so far published by the Deutsche Sportbund listsfollowing results (in Project „Sport mit Aussiedlern“. 10 Jahre Integrationsarbeit. Analyse, 2. Auflage, Frankfurt am Main 2000):
Particularly efficient for the long-term integration of resettlers are primarily types of offersand projects which are available on a permanent basis. However, a generally applicableevaluation pattern does not exist. The project coordinators have obviously learned verydifferent lessons which evidently depends on the subject matter, typical organizationstructures and resources available for the projects implemented by the various Länder.
The scientific study „Integration findet nicht nur in der Turnhalle statt. Sport- undbewegungsorientierte Jugendsozialarbeit in Niedergörsdorf/OT Flugplatz“ of the Universityof Potsdam states that the goal has been achieved „to make interaction between youngresettlers and natives more attractive and that additionally valuable experience for integrationand youth work has probably been collected during sports activities organized by clubs“. Additional Information
Bundeskoordinatorin des Projekts „Integration durch Sport“ im Deutschen Sportbund, Otto-Fleck-Schneise 12, 60528 Frankfurt am Main
Offenses against Property Prevention Badge Organization
Since February 1998 the Prevention Commissariat of the county police authority of Güterslohhas handed out prevention badges for real estate complying with a certain safety standard andwhose inhabitants have been counseled on behavioral prevention measures. It can – clearlyvisible – be affixed to the windows and doors of the checked buildings.
The prevention sticker is awarded project-related and bears a serial number. It only confirmsthat the pertinent physical safety measures deemed necessary for apartments and privatehouses are complied with. Interested citizens may contact the security counselor of thePrevention Commissariat or their local police officer, but also any uniformed police officer tohave the safety of their property checked.
There is a total of 15 regional officers who check on the actual condition of the object,prepare an analysis of the weak points and make improvement suggestions. After a second„safety check“ the decision will be taken whether or not the safety badge will be awarded.
This is not a TÜV type check (TÜV = German Association for TechnicalInspection/Technical Control Board) or a similar expert examination but it is only a secondcheck to make sure that weak points have been provided with safety devices. In all caseswhere – based on the lessons learned from practical field work – the safety is deemedinsufficient or where safety devices are missing the prevention sticker will only be awardedafter upgrading has taken place.
A high counseling standard with view to the technical possibilities and behavior isguaranteed, because the Prevention Commissariat provides constant follow-up training andorganizes briefings at fairs and in firms producing security equipment.
Initially 6,000 of the colored light-reflecting plastic badges have been produced. The countypolice authority of Gütersloh provided the pertinent funds, i.e. EURO 7,000.
This project aims at motivating real estate owners to install safety equipment by developingtechnical safety standards for apartments and dwellings and by providing qualified policeofficers for counseling. In the same way behavioral aspects have been integrated into thisproject. In order to develop overall safety thinking some fire prevention topics have also beenincluded in the counseling concept.
The award of the prevention badge serves to increase the subjective safety of the citizens andto improve the objective safety of apartments and houses.
By displaying the prevention badges in such a way on windows and doors that they cannot beoverlooked potential burglars are to be deterred thus reducing the number of burglaries.
Contact of the citizens with the police for safety counseling purposes is also used to conveybehavioral prevention measures.
Award of the prevention badge is not an administrative action and consequently there is noright of recourse against the police authorities if – in spite of the prevention badge – aburglary occurs.
Craftsmen, architects and financing companies have been made familiar with the relevantaspects of police safety counseling to inform people who want to build their own house of theprevention badge project and to increase their know-how (in particular of craftsmen'scompanies). Results/Lessons Learned
Under the „prevention badge“ project 598 counseling visits have taken place which resultedin the award of 131 badges (as of February 2003).
Up to now there has been no intrusion into real property awarded a prevention badge.
A positive side effect of prevention counseling was the establishment of direct contact withthe local police officer which in turn also contributed to making people feel safer.
In order to satisfy their customers builders, planners and craftsmen make an effort toimplement the recommendations of the police and to advertise their new quality standardswith the „Safe House“ motto. As a result the protection association „Safe House“ wasestablished in cooperation with the Gütersloh County Craftsmen Association unitingarchitects/planners and craftsmen companies. They have been trained by the BHE(Bundesverband Hersteller und Errichter von Sicherungssystemen – Federal Association ofSafety System Producers) and have taken pertinent tests. Regular workshops are scheduledfor information exchange and the preparation of additional training sessions.
At present (as of February 2003) a number of insurance companies such as R & V-Versicherung, Provinzial and Hamburg- Mannheimer charge their clients up to 30 p.c. less fortheir household insurances if the property of the policy holders has been awarded theprevention badge. Other insurance companies (Allianz, LVM, Albingia, Winterthur) areinterested in this project.
A process evaluation of the project conducted by the European Center for Crime Prevention -collocated with the Münster and Twente universities – was completed with positive results in2002. Additional Information
The County Commissioner’s Office which is also the Kreispolizeibehörde (county policeauthority) Gütersloh, Kommissariat Vorbeugung, Herzebrocker Str. 142, 33334 Gütersloh
Public Areas (incl. public transport) Stadtwache Bielefeld Organization
A cooperation agreement reached between the Lord Mayor and the Police President stipulatesthat the City of Bielefeld and the police will jointly – within their areas of responsibility –take measures to ensure public safety and order.
As joint contact point the „Stadtwache“ was established in the city center of Bielefeld by theOrdnungsamt (Agency for Public Order) and Police Headquarters on 10 June 1998.
In 1998/1999 the Fachhochschule für Öffentliche Verwaltung in Bielefeld academicallysupported the project to check on the effectiveness and efficiency.
The goals and tasks of the project have not changed and can be summarized as follows:
• to enhance the subjective feeling of security by providing more law enforcement
personnel in so-called „critical areas“ as well as service and welfare facilities for marginalgroups,
• to meet the requirements of the local people to the extent possible taking all interests into
account (to include the interest of passers-by, small shopkeepers, but also of the membersof marginal groups),
• to improve the streetscape by applying security and law and order standards, i.e. by
correcting deficiencies reported by members of the „Stadtwache“,
• to enhance the objective security by taking measures against incorrect behavior (straying
The members of the „Stadtwache“ also participate in the following projects:
• the drug concept of the City of Bielefeld,• the establishment of a working group in charge of improving public areas• the activities of the Social and Crime Prevention Council,• the law enforcement partnership to fight shoplifting.
As time went by drug prevention has become one of the main tasks. Results / Experiences
At the moment (September 2002) a welfare team comprising seven police officers and onemember of the city administration who has his office at the „Stadtwache“ is at work. Based onan internal directive the police guarantees that at least 3 police officers are available per shift. As a rule two officers or a team comprising a member of the city administration patrol thearea to be looked after/area of responsibility.
The members of the Ordnungsamt will wear an official uniform while in service.
By having 14 recognizable and visible members of the two organizations patrol the streets,the presence of law enforcement personnel has been markedly increased in the downtownarea.
For further evaluation of the project impact the crime rates of the first six months of 1998 andthe first six months of 1999 (comparison of the criminal situation before and after theimplementation of the project) were compared. In addition people in the streets were asked fortheir opinion five months after the establishment of the „Stadtwache“.
The comparison of the opinion polls reveals that
• the feeling of security of the citizens has improved (1997: 67%, 1998: 72% felt safe in the
• molestation by cyclists, inline skaters and stray dogs has decreased (1997: 61%, 1998:
• In 1997 the presence of law enforcement personnel in the downtown area was rated
satisfactory, in 1998 it was rated good.
• 1997 the downtown tidiness was rated sufficient whereas in 1998 it was deemed to be
The objective situation has worsened due to a slight increase of street crimes, violent crimes
The results described do not allow a final statement whether the measures of the„Stadtwache“ have actually had an impact or whether there is a new trend in the entire city. The latter seems to be true since the opinion poll has already been conducted five moths afterthe establishment of the „Stadtwache“. Only some effects may be noted, but reliableconclusions cannot be drawn.
No empirical evidence with regard to the impact of the project was collected at a later date. There is, however, no change of the positive rating of the project. The project organizersincreased the number of officers of the city administration from five to seven. The policestated that cooperation with city organizations, in particular the welfare services, AliensOffice, Welfare Office, etc. has markedly improved. Additional Information
Polizeipräsidium Bielefeld, Kommissariat Vorbeugung, Lerchenstrasse 2, 33607 Bielefeld
Victim Help / Victim Protection Witness Counseling at the Local and Regional Courts of Düsseldorf Organization
The establishment of a witness counseling service in Düsseldorf was initiated by the CityOffice for Women's Affairs and the local working group on „Sex-Related Violence“. At thesuggestion of the President of the Regional Court, representatives of the Public Prosecutor'sOffice, the Bar Association, the Women's Counseling Agency, the Office for Women'sAffairs, the Weisser Ring (an organization which provides aid to victims of crimes), PoliceHeadquarters, the Local Court and the Regional Court as well as of a concomitant researchproject jointly participated in the implementation of a Witness Counseling Service.
In December 1997 the Witness Counseling Service began its work at the local and regionalcourts of Düsseldorf. Two graduate social workers with experience in techniques for guidingdiscussions, crisis intervention and counseling were hired as witness counselors on the basisof job-creation measures („ABM“). In a two-month familiarization phase they were givenfurther legal and psychological basics for counseling witnesses and for communicating court-relevant knowledge to witnesses. They were obligated to maintain secrecy by means ofofficial regulations. They must also refrain from providing legal advise or discussing thetestimonies of the witnesses and from influencing the witnesses with regard to theirwillingness to testify or not.
When the project began, two centrally located rooms, an office and a room for counseling –were renovated in the courthouse. The room for counseling was furnished with a donationfrom a local furniture store.
Networking with other victims and institutions or agencies having contacts with victims is anessential element for effective witness counseling at court, in order to ensure that witnessesare looked after outside of the court case. For this purpose the Witness Counseling Serviceworks closely with the women's counseling agency of Düsseldorf, the Düsseldorf youthwelfare agency, the police, the public prosecutor's office, the Weisser Ring, theMaedchenhaus e.V. (home for girls), The Child Protection First-Aid Station, the batteredwomen's shelter and the „Violence in Families“ counseling agency.
The main objectives of the Witness Counseling Service are:
• the lessening of fear among witnesses,• the reduction of ongoing stress during the court proceedings,• the prevention of long-term damage.
The Witness Counseling Service aims primarily at the victims of crimes who have to testify incourt as witnesses. The possibility of assistance is also open to witnesses who are notthemselves victims of a crime, but who are burdened by what they have experienced or by theupcoming interrogation. Professional witnesses, such as police officers, are excepted unlessthey themselves have become victims of crimes.
The tasks of the Witness Counseling Service are performed by social workers who areemployed by the courts. As court employees they are neutral and impartial. The witnesses areoffered individual assistance in particular with view to
• questions related to their summons to a court hearing,• questions related to traveling to and orientation in the courthouse,• information on the formal procedure of the trial,• bridging waiting times and childcare,• information on compensation for witnesses, and• information on other offers of support.
The employees of the Witness Counseling Service
• ensure that the persons staying in their rooms are not bothered,• attempt to create an atmosphere that is free of fear and to calm witnesses down,• provide information on all questions which do not require legal advise,• are available to witnesses as points of contact throughout the duration of the court trial,
inform witnesses about offers of support of other psychosocial institutions and help withestablishing contacts with these facilities. Results / Experiences
The focus of the concomitant research was on the continuous documentation and observationof the establishment of this program. Statements on the efficacy and necessity of the WitnessCounseling Service were to be collected in a way to permit sound scientific evaluation. Thelong-term goal of this scientific research was the preparation of guidelines for theestablishment of pertinent victim protection programs for use in other regional court districts(„Düsseldorf Model“).
Another goal of the research project consisted in the preparation of a curriculum for thetraining of witness counselors.
A comprehensive study of the impact of witness counseling began with the recruitment of asample of a total of 100 cases in January 1998. Witnesses, counselors, presiding judges,representatives of the public prosecutor's office, defense counsels and private prosecutorswere interviewed.
The Witness Counseling Service in Düsseldorf at the Regional Court and the Local Court wasaccepted quickly and very positively. Between December 1997 and mid-2002 more than5,000 witnesses came to the counseling room and almost 8,500 witnesses of both sexes haverequested support on the phone or arranged for counseling sessions prior to a court hearing.
By comparison with witnesses of another regional court who had not been counseled thespecific efficacy of qualified counseling could be demonstrated. There is also a change in thestate of non-counseled witnesses from prior to the trial until after they have testified. There isa sense of relief, because the onerous and unpleasant experience is over. However, this changewas more positive and intense among those counseled than among those who had not beencounseled.
A Witness Counseling Service is thus able to instill the witnesses with more self-confidence. Its major effect lies in the fact that negative feelings prior to the trial could be reduced andthat the witnesses could take a more positive attitude. This contributes to stabilizing thewitnesses to an extent that they can better cope with the stress related to testifying in amajority of cases and are also more receptive and concentrated while testifying.
In view of the great demand for counseling among male witnesses, a restriction of victimcounseling to women or children cannot be supported. Nor is a restriction to witnesses whoare the actual victims deemed advisable as the need for information and help on the part of theother witnesses has become obvious. The definition of a victim cannot be undertaken solelyon the basis of objective criteria.
With regard to the other parties in the trial, the judges in particular initially raised the issue ofthe possible negative impact of counseling on testimony or on the trial. A survey conductedon this point showed that the fear that counseling could have a negative impact on testimonywas unable to be confirmed by the parties to the proceedings after counseling had occurred. On the average 44 % indicated they were unable to judge the results or stated that counselingdid not have an impact on the witnesses' behavior while testifying. Additional Information
Landgericht Düsseldorf, Neubrückstr. 3, 40213 Düsseldorf
Violence BERLIN Model: Neighborhood-Oriented Violence and Crime Prevention Organization
The model project was developed by the State Commission „Berlin against Violence“ incooperation with the Sozialpädagogischen Institut (Social and Educational Science Institute)Berlin (SPI). It was implemented in the districts of Neukölln and (former) Friedrichshain incooperation with the pertinent district offices and the SPI from April 1997 to March 1999 andMay 1997 to September 1999 respectively.
Two „Kiezes“ (neighborhoods) were chosen as model areas which public opinion consideredto be problem areas (Neukölln) and/or suspected to become problem areas (Friedrichshain).
Two each coordinators per „Kiez“ set out to engage the male and female local population tosupport networking of the institutions and persons involved and tried to initiate activities. Onecoordination point per „Kiez“ was linked up with the SPI and was funded by the Jugend- undFamilienstiftung des Landes Berlin (Youth and Family Foundation of the City State ofBerlin).
However, the two female coordinators did not start work in the two neighborhoods beforeAugust 1997. The other coordination points were linked up with the pertinent districtauthorities, i.e. in Neukölln with the Youth Welfare Office and in Friedrichshain with thedistrict mayor's office. The two neighborhoods established a district commission for verticalnetworking. In addition cooperation circles at neighborhood level developed in the two modelareas. A local office was established in the two neighborhoods so that the male/femalecoordinators could be directly contacted to take measures.
The model project aims at supplementing the traditional police and judiciary preventionstrategies by primary and secondary prevention measures which comprise the
1. development of interministerial and interinstitutional working and cooperation structures,
2. development of age-specific and situation-oriented measures for children, adolescents and
3. activation of the citizens of both sexes and development of personal engagement,
neighborhood relations and honorary work for the community,
4. acceptance of responsibility by citizens and professionals as well as by
institutions/organizations (whose work proper is not to look after children and youngsters)to support the model project and to provide new resources,
5. enhancement of the subjective personal feeling of security,
6. qualification of the personnel involved in the model project for prevention work,
7. aiming at neighborhood-oriented consequences, i.e. to get an all-city discussion on the
development of local violence and crime prevention measures underway.
Starting point of the measures was the „Kiez“, i.e. a part of a city district considered an entityby its inhabitants. Results / Experiences
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the measures revealed the following results which can onlybe shortly described:
Ad 1. No lasting interministerial and interinstitutional working and cooperation structureshave developed at district level. This was due to the fact that the district commissions havenot assumed the control of the model project as desired so that control was finally put in localhands. At Kiez level well-functioning Kiez groups and workshops have developed.
Ad 2. One of the most important aims of the project was the implementation of the draftedage-specific and situation-oriented measures for children, adolescents and young adults ofboth sexes. Some of the measures have caught on (as e.g. the youth center „Waschküche“ inthe Rollberg district where partial success with view to secondary prevention and/or the „Hierfinden Kinder Hilfe“ (child support) action has been achieved).
Ad 3. In Neukölln in particular social engagement of the inhabitants was an important aim. Even after termination of the model project the impact was visible, primarily because of a so-called „Kiez Breakfast“. In Friedrichshain focus was more on support and coordination ofinterauthority cooperation structures.
Ad 4. With regard to the assumption of responsibility there are a few examples such as thesupport of the Child Aid Action by shopkeepers. At the level of institutions/organizationswhich normally do not work with children and youngsters no more than initial steps havebeen taken and it is questionable whether the efforts will continue.
Ad 5. Because the evaluation was started too late and because due to this fact no analysis ofthe initial situation was available, but also due to the problems of attributing the impacts anadequate assessment of „successes“ regarding the feeling of security was impossible.
Ad 6. Qualification offers were submitted in the two model areas. We want to highlight thedocumentation and guidelines for the „Child Aid“ action. The follow-up training offer couldnot by far meet the requirements and no organization emerged which would have assumed theresponsibility to continue this action.
Ad 7. It may be assumed that a number of neighborhoods got involved, since during andafter implementation of the model project several Berlin districts implemented communityprevention measures.
For a comprehensive description of the model project refer to:
Ben, Sabine / de Vireos, Heinz J.: Modellprojekt „Kiezorientierte Gewalt- undKriminalitätsprävention“, Abschlussbericht der Wissenschaftlichen Begleitung, Ed. Camino,Werkstatt für Fortbildung, Praxisbegleitung und Forschung im sozialen Bereich gGmbH(email@example.com), Berlin 2000.
Behn, Sabine / Brandl, Matthias / de Vries, Heinz J.: „Präventionsmodelle in Berlin. Berichtder Wissenschaftlichen Begleitung". Ed Camino, Werkstatt für Fortbildung, Praxisbegleitungund Forschung im sozialen Bereich gGmbH. Additional Information
Landeskommission Berlin gegen Gewalt, c/o Senatsverwaltung für Schule, Jugend und Sport,Beuthstr. 6 – 8, 10117 Berlin
Violence Self-Assurance/Self-Determination Training for Girls at Schools in North-Rhine- Westphalia Organization
With the support of the Ministry of the Interior of North Rhine-Westphalia the AdultEducation Institute of Oberbergischer Kreis (county), the discussion group of thePolizeisportvereine Deutschlands (German police sports clubs), the Prevention Commissariatof the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the Polizeifortbildungsinstitut (PoliceAdvanced Training Institute) in Neuss have prepared a state-wide concept for self-assurance/self-determination training of girls and women.
Simultaneously the boys are offered a program on „Emancipatory Youth Work – ConflictManagement Training at School“.
Very early the question surfaced in the prevention commissioner's offices tasked with theorganization and/or support of self-assurance/self-determination training and emancipatoryyouth work how to find adequate cooperation partners since – as a rule – they neither had thetime nor the personnel to provide the courses without third-party assistance. The two projectsmust rely on cooperation. Basically the pertinent authority was to decide at which time certainpartners (the certificate is required as basis) should be found and/or engaged.
It should be mentioned that every authority has stipulated other prerequisites for cooperationand that the programs must primarily be tailored to the local situation. For topics whichcannot or should not be dealt with by the Prevention Commissioner's Office cooperationpartners are required. The topics „Violence against women, forensic science and law“ shouldat all events be the domain of the Prevention Commissioner's Office.
The staff of the Prevention Commissioner's Office can assess during the lessons whether thecooperation partners have complied with the concept.
Competent organizations for training adults are police sports clubs, the adult educationcenters and other institutions just as are secondary schools for training girls and boys(preferably of the age group attending the 9th and 10th grades).
Self-assurance training for girls and emancipatory training (conflict management) for boys arelike two sides of one coin. They are to prevent that the young people become victimized. Thetwo concepts are based on the lessons learned from scientific studies on sexual abuse, sexualviolence and violence in personal relations. The results of these studies provided the kick-offfor training to prevent the young people from becoming victims or offenders.
Courses in self-assurance for girls (women) are to enable them by means of sex education,self-assured behavior and the acquisition of defensive strategies to counter attempted sexualabuse. The training sessions are designed for prevention and not for therapy. They are toprevent that girls are victimized by sexual violence.
The self-assurance training sessions for girls aim at
• socialization of women and men to prevent them from becoming victims and offenders
and to enable them to recognize and be aware of problems (family, TV, peer group,advertising, role models),
• enhancing the sense of self-worth, to improve self-assured behavior in every-day life,• acquiring patterns of behavior which prevent victimization,• modification of behavioral patterns by means of new experience,• acquiring effective individual ways of self-defense,• managing feelings such as powerlessness – power, profit – loss, escalation – deescalation,
• developing a sense of justice by means of lessons learned, judicial and personal questions
pertaining to violence against girls and women (such as rape),
• establishing findings about offenders and circumstances of a case,• developing behavioral patterns to clearly define the limits to a male (how to say No),• developing confidence in one's own competence to act and one's own power: in conflict
situations, under stress, when feelings need to be managed, when aggressions becomeevident, in attack situations.
Training comprises six modular units. The sequence of the modular units depends on the waythe crime was committed.
It should be stressed that the offender is always the responsible person. The prejudice „It'syour own fault if you dress as you do“ (e.g. miniskirt) is not to be replaced by „It's your ownfault. Why did you not defend yourself effectively!“
A point must be made that the boys are not treated like potential offenders. Knowledge hasbeen gained that boys too are victims of sexual violence.
Training is provided in teams. Training sessions for girls should primarily be conducted byfemale teachers whereas boys are primarily to be taught by male teachers.
The method used will be decisive to get the ideas across to the youngsters. It is evident that allstudents learn more easily and get more involved if the lessons are fun. If the same method isused over a two hour period the students get tired. For this reason alternating methods shouldbe used: theory and practical work, talks, discussions, practical exercises, plays, work withhandouts, use of the media, but also use of different teachers.
The pedagogic role play is a rather frequently chosen method because it serves to becomeaware of one's own behavioral patterns, and is useful to test and train new reactions andapproaches.
Part of the overall concept are the qualification measures in order to guarantee good anduniform standards throughout the state. Qualification is offered for three target groups, i.e. forthe police and their cooperation partners, higher educational institutes and adult educationinstitutions (i.e. police sports clubs, adult education centers, etc.). Qualification training isconducted as a cooperation project. Organization is the task of more than one partner. Thecooperation partners of the police will be given a certificate. Previous training will be takeninto account. Results/Lessons Learned
Self-assurance/self-determination training for girls at schools which aims at preventingvictimization has been offered in the Oberbergischen Kreis (county) for more than ten years. At some schools these training sessions have by now become an integral component of thecurriculum.
At present lecturers from adult education centers and/or approx. 50 trained educationalscientists organize training sessions in one of the 52 higher educational institutes in theOberbergischen Kreis almost every week.
Since 1995 this self-assurance/self-determination training has not only been integrated in theschools of the county, but is part of a program of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and hasbeen taken over by a number of institutions throughout Germany. The cooperation partnershave developed a logogram. Girls and women can be sure that they are offered a high qualitystandardized program in all of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Due to this overall concept 150 staff members of the North Rhine-Westphalian preventioncommissioner's offices, 187 instructors (North Rhine-Westphalia/Germany) and 249educational scientists and lecturers (networks in Oberberg I, II, III and IV, Schwelm,Solingen, Coesfeld I and II, Kleve I, Minden, Recklinghausen I and II) will qualify by the endof 2001.
The evaluation conducted under the custodianship of the University of Dortmund focused onthe extent to which such training sessions enable girls to protect themselves against sexualencroachment, whether the training sessions meet the requirements and whether the attitudetoward the police and consequently release of information is changing.
Among other things the girls were asked about „strange (sexual) situations in which theyfound themselves in an awkward position“, „unwanted touching“, „sexual insults“, „sexualintimidation/rape“. The effectiveness of the training could be proven. An analysis of thepossible „defensive strategies“ (to become aware and to avoid, prevent, defend) revealed that92% of the girls who had undergone training could forestall victimization.
The girls' motivation to cooperate is very high. They engage themselves with their experienceand knowledge and are willing to test new behavioral patterns, - not only during the trainingsessions, but also in real life. The results prove that the girls remember what they havelearned, change their behavior and use new patterns in everyday life.
For further information please refer to: http://www.em-jug.de. Additional Information
Kreispolizeibehörde Gummersbach, Kommissariat Vorbeugung, Karlsstrasse 14 – 16, 51643Gummersbach
Witness and Helper Behavior Campaign „Violence - Awareness - Help“ Organization
Due to the decision taken by the Frankfurt am Main Prevention Council on 18 June 1997 the„Security“ Working Group was tasked to study why „people look away“ if offenses,molestation or similar incidents occur and how counterstrategies can be developed. Based ona concept which had been developed by the „Security“ Working Group the campaign„Violence – Awareness - Help“ could be started in Frankfurt on 29 October 1997.
Funds for this project are provided from the amount budgeted for “Prevention“ by the City ofFrankfurt, sponsors and donations.
The campaign aims at public discussion and subsequent visualization of the problemsinvolved in looking away. A second long-term step is the preparation of concerted appealsand information on behavioral strategies
• to motivate the population to help and thus reduce the „look away“ phenomenon,• to reinforce the sense of responsibility and duty,• to support the social attitude in general and civil courage in particular and• to discourage offenders. Results / Experiences
The essence of the campaign is the purposive information of the population on how to handleemergency conditions and violence and to offer pertinent training. In 1997/1998 900multiplicators were trained in workshops and more than 3,000 people in public office weremade familiar with the topic at information events. The campaign involved all social circlesfrom the garbageman to the bank clerk, women's associations, the churches, parties andunions and foreigners' clubs in Frankfurt. „Violence – Awareness - Help“ has by now becomean integral part of adult and family education programs.
In 1997/1998 two poster series were designed and put up in public locations. 100,000 leafletsand 10,000 pins were distributed. Many possibilities were used to make the slogan known.
An opinion poll among the Frankfurt population in 1998 and a special project of theVerwaltungsfachhochschule in Wiesbaden revealed that the campaign was well received. 55%of the people questioned were aware of the campaign and 75% expressed their conviction thatit was necessary.
In 1999 the campaign was more rigorously conducted in the regions and started to addresscertain target groups like children and adolescents. Due to the information given to theregional councils a wide public was addressed and received the pertinent information on thecorrect behavior in an emergency situation. Big posters were put up and a spot was presentedin the cinemas during the summer. In cooperation with a partner 75,000 flyers ware produced. Under the heading „Be Cool – Stay Cool“ the campaign was adapted to the environment ofchildren and adolescents. Training for competent action in violent situations was offered atschool. Follow-up training for teachers and pedagogic workshops in schools will also beorganized in future. The Frankfurt School Theater Studio supports the preventive projects ofthe schools with its performances.
The Lord Mayor handed 90 wristwatches with the emblem of the prevention campaign over tothe Frankfurt police president to be given to witnesses of offenses.
The final report of the supporting academic study which was already published in early 1999presented the following results: „Compared with other projects aiming at the development ofpositive social behavior among the population the campaign 'Violence – Awareness - Help'can be rated as very successful since it has continuously addressed this topic for more thanone year." Right now it is difficult to say whether it contributed to a change for the better withview to the Frankfurt citizens' willingness to help. Therefore, the campaign must be continuedto have lasting effects.“
In 2000 the Prevention Council opened up new ways by advertising the campaign in theinternet (http://www.gewalt-sehen-helfen.de). Since the page has been available in the internet(July 2000) approx. 8,000 surfers per month have visited the page.
As in the year before 2,000 children and adolescents were addressed. One of the actions wasto distribute schedules with the campaign slogan on top to the students of the Frankfurtschools at the beginning of the school year. On the reverse side „model school regulations“were printed to invite students to think about tolerance and violence-free interaction. Furtherprojects for children and adolescents included the production of a „SOS telephone card“ and astudent magazine competition. A new highlight of the year was the production of a new posterseries.
The project „Reading against Violence“ with a number of events in the various city quartersand schools started in spring 2001. 46 media boxes were made available to the Frankfurtschools. With the project „Safe Taxi“ the taxi-drivers were included in the project „Violence –Awareness - Help“. They are part of the Frankfurt society and see many things, can help andcan call for help. 200,000 sacks for rolls of a great bakery got the slogan printed on duringvacation time to remember the citizens to practice civil courage and solidarity.
By now the campaign is said to be successful in combating the bad habit of looking away.
Based on a decision of the Prevention Council the campaign will also be continued in 2003. Additional Information
Stadt Frankfurt am Main, 60275 Frankfurt am Main
Xenophobia How to get away from right-wing extremism Organization
In a joint appeal the Congress of Cities, Congress of Communities, Congress of Counties andthe Ministry of the Interior of Baden- Württemberg have confirmed that criminal prevention ofthe communities was the ideal platform for local projects under the heading „Alliance againstRight-Wing Extremism and Violence“.
Purposeful help to stop such activities and effective protection of cooperative witnessesrequire the close cooperation of police, judiciary and other authorities and institutions such asyouth offices, welfare offices and employment offices, etc. The measures of the individualactivities seem to be particularly successful if aims and time frame can be coordinated ratherearly and if a joint prevention and/or intervention strategy can be adopted. Crime preventionof the communities, i.e. the active program „Juvenile Criminals“ and the joint administrativedirective of the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Justice to protect witnessesprovides an ideal basis to initiate additional measures. Cooperation networks created for thispurpose may also be used for the program „How to get away from right-wing extremism“ forthe implementation of which the state security sections of local authorities and the so-calledBIG-Rex (Counseling and intervention groups against right-wing extremism) at the LandOffice of Criminal Investigation are responsible. The BIG-Rex will intervene by request orupon coordination with the local authorities.
The essential aim of the efforts to make people quit the right-wing extremist scene is toprevent sympathizers from joining this scene, the termination of right-wing extremist careers,the prevention of additional pertinent crimes and linking up of so far loosely associatedpersons and/or sympathizers with right-wing supporters, but also the protection of endangeredwitnesses as long as they are under threat and consequently to ensure criminal prosecutionand pertinent criminal proceedings.
The target group basically comprises all persons registered by the police as members of theright-wing extremist scene, i.e. criminals, activists, skinheads and sympathizers. A differencemust be made between
• Persons who come or have come to the attention of the police without having committed
By means of information, counseling, sponsoring and support from youth aid programs,discussions between teachers and young people of the pertinent age groups, etc. sympathizers are to be prevented from becoming supporters of the right-wing extremistscene.
• Persons of whom the police has already taken notice due to right-wing extremist or
xenophobic offenses, but most of whom have so far not been convicted or have notcommitted violent crimes.
In actual preliminary proceedings an abandonment of these ideas should be possible and a„criminal career“ should be prevented by concerted actions of the police and theprosecutor's office and in the case of young people by consultation with the youth office,e.g. by ordering the case to be dismissed stating certain conditions and supervision thatthese conditions are met (to be done by the police or similar activities).
• Persons who are known to have several times committed right-wing extremist or
xenophobic offenses and/or pertinent serious crimes (brutal criminals or recidivists).
By pointing out potential advantages for the proceedings in case of cooperation with theinstitutions responsible for the execution of a sentence and promise and/or implementationof pertinent safety measures for witnesses those concerned should be enticed to makestatements and to turn away from the right-wing extremist scene.
• Right-wing extremist groups or groups under right-wing extremist influence with a
limited number of members which are mostly locally/regionally active.
Groups of this type are to be prompted to quit the right-wing extremist scene with the helpof the „Counseling and Intervention Group against Right-Wing Extremism“ (BIG-Rex) incooperation with the local youth social workers.
Tasks and Responsibilities of the Police Directorates/Headquarters
The police directorates/headquarters know the persons of the right-wing extremist sceneand/or those under their influence and categorize them accordingly. Every person is rated onthe basis of criteria such as
• available police records,• personal situation of those concerned,• present living conditions and• degree of ideologization
with view to helping these people abandon this ideology. This assessment, the subsequentprioritization within the target group and the determination of possible measures arecoordinated with the other activities involved (youth office, welfare office, employmentoffice, etc.) taking the available information into account.
Regular coordination meetings with the competent authorities and institutions such as thejudiciary, youth office and – if required - the non-government youth welfare organizations areorganized to determine cooperation and approach in every individual case.
In case the requirements are met the police directorates/headquarters request the „Counselingand Intervention Group against Right-Wing Extremism“ of the Land Office of CriminalInvestigation to intervene and continue the implementation of measures in cooperation withthe representatives of the local youth welfare organizations.
Measure to Incite Supporters to leave the Right-Wing Extremist Scene
Police measures under the heading „Help to get away from right-wing extremism“ are e.g.
• preventive talks with those concerned and their legal guardians,• suggest a point of contact in the police organization,• get information about the personal background,• more police at the relevant locations,• win over young people who have left the scene to act as „multiplicators“,• urgent police investigations and quick involvement of the public prosecutor if a new
• offer the protection of witnesses and• intervention of the „Counseling and Intervention Group against Right-Wing Extremism“.
In principle the Land Office of Criminal Investigation and/or BIG-Rex deals adequately withcriminals and recidivist who due to the consequence of their criminal offense or theiractivities are of supraregional importance. Results/Lessons Learned
In order to be able to judge the success of the program and to allow for its updating the policeheadquarters have been requested to report the results and the lessons learned during theimplementation of the program to the Land Office of Criminal Investigation.
In doing so focus was on the following aspects:
• number and leaning/disposition of the target persons,• number and leaning/disposition of the persons/groups addressed,• number and type of the measures implemented,• number of successful/unsuccessful interventions and possible reasons for this
• assessment of the program,• difficulties encountered and• suggestions to improve the program.
So far (as of October 2002) 684 of the 975 target persons in Baden- Württemberg wereaddressed by the local police and BIG-Rex.
72 former members of the scene can be safely assumed to have quit the scene.
Complying with the requirements listed in the Ministry of Interior directive the local policeauthorities focused their activities on sympathizers and on „first offenders“. The local policecontacted 584 persons. Among the 55 persons ready to quit the scene who were taken care ofby the local police 30 had started their efforts and 25 had already visibly changed theirbehavioral patterns when this report was written.
BIG-Rex contacted 136 persons (36 sympathizers, 51 „first“ offenders and 49 persons of thegroup of violent offenders and recidivists). 80 persons could be assumed to associate withloosely connected groups with a local background.
At present (2002) BIG-Rex takes care of 17 persons who are quitting the scene. Work withthree more persons was terminated because they refused cooperation, again committedoffenses or did not comply with the provisions of the program.
Additional results of this 12 month pilot period are:
• Contact could be established to members of the scene thus contributing to the
disconcertion of the scene and probably even to the reduction of right-wing extremistmotivated offenses,
• together with the cooperation partners the educational idea laid down in the Juvenile
• insight into the motivation to join and/or to quit the scene,• cooperation with other organizations as e.g. youth welfare, schools and judiciary
represents a tasks requiring more engagement (build-up of efficient networks) and
• more cooperation and communication at the local levels.
One problem area in the preventive efforts is the so-called target group 4 (groups under right-wing extremist influence with an appraisable number of persons who are mostly locallyactive): this target group can hardly be contacted by youth welfare organizations or the policenor was it prepared to contact BIG-Rex. Additional Information
Innenministerium Baden- Württemberg, Abteilung 3 – Landespolizeipräsidium - ,Dorotheenstr. 6, 70173 Stuttgart
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