Hiv cancer.wps

The in vivo in vitro anti-HIV activity and cellular immune
stimulating effects of the pharmacological compound, MC-S
The South Asian Epidemiology Research Group, 2008 Abstract:
The immune stimulatory effects of the dietary supplement MC-S was evaluated on twenty HIV patients and 18 healthy subjects, the anti-HIV activity was also evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results: MC-S in-vitro reduced HIV
induced syncytia formation, dose dependently. The stimulatory effects of MC-S on subjects orally taking MC-S at concentration of 1 tablet per15 to 20 kg of body weight per day for a period of 2 months, demonstrated in both groups, a significant increase in the expression of IL-2 (a CD-4 cell stimulant) and IFN (a cytokine that induces intracellular ant-viral activity). Conclusion: These results
indicate that MC-S possesses promising anti-HIV activity and immune
stimulating properties. Suggesting MC-S is a biological response modifier
that could offer additional benefits to individuals suffering with HIV / AIDS
or living with impaired immunity.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. HIV infection in humans is now pandemic. As of January 2006, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized on December 1 1981, making it one of the most destructive pandemics in recorded history. It is estimated that about 0.6% of the world's population is infected with HIV.(1) In
2005 alone, AIDS claimed an estimated 2.4–3.3 million lives, of which more than 570,000 were children. A third of these deaths are occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, retarding economic growth and increasing poverty.(2) According to
current estimates, HIV is set to infect 90 million people in Africa, resulting in a minimum estimate of 18 million orphans.(3)
The viral etiology of AIDS-associated cancers has also become increasingly important. In a recent publication by the University of NSW, researchers reviewed the results of 7 clinical trials that specifically looking at the rate of cancers diagnosed in a total of nearly half a million HIV patients, they found that the rates of 20 out of the 28 cancers studied were significantly increased in the HIV- infected patients. This Lead researchers to conclude that HIV increases the risks of a broader range of cancers and not just the three types of cancer (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cervical cancer and Kaposi's sarcoma) previously recognised, hence cancer ranks high in morbidity of people with HIV/AIDS.(4) Antiretroviral
treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries.(5)
Drugs such as Zidovudine have been developed as a treatment for AIDS, however with the emerge of HIV strains, resistant to AIDS drugs, the thought of this disease mutating into a super virus is now a major concern. With very little hope of a vaccine in the next five years.(6-7) The current interest and need is to identify
natural non-toxic anti-HIV agents that are not only active against the virus but also can activate a host’s deficient immune system. In a two part study the following compound Metabolic Cell Support (MC-S) was evaluated for its immune stimulating and anti-HIV potential, as research has already demonstrated MC-S possesses powerful in-vitro and in-vivo anti-viral and anti-cancer properties. (8-9)
Part 1 Objectives:
Part 1. HIV and cancer induced Syncytia formation can occur when cells are
infected with certain types of virus such as HIV, During infection, viral fusion proteins used by the virus to enter the cell are transported to the cell surface where they can cause the host cell membrane to fuse with neighbouring cells. In the HIV infection, the virus can infect T-helper lymphocytes. When infected these leukocytes begin to display surface HIV glycoproteins, which are antigenic. Normally, a T-cytotoxic lymphocyte will immediately come to "inject" lymphotoxins that will kill the infected T-helper cells. However, if there are nearby T-helper cells, the GP-41 HIV receptors displayed on the surface of the T- helper will bind to other similar lymphocytes. This makes dozens of T-helpers fuse cell membranes into a giant, nonfunctional syncytium, which allows the HIV virus to kill many T-helpers by infecting only one. (10) The aim of this part of the
study was to examine the in-vitro inhibitory effect of MC-S on HIV-1 induced Part 2. An effective immune attack on a latent and persistent HIV infection would
require enhanced cellular immune responses. Such a responses may be achievable by active in-vivo expansion of viral and host specific cytotoxic and helper T lymphocytes. The aim of this part of the study was to examine the stimulatory effects of MC-S on HIV patients in-vivo and if MC-S has the ability to increase their production of IL-2 (an important cytokine that regulates the body’s produces of CD4 cells) and IFN ( a cytokine that can induce intracellular ant-viral activity), 18 healthy subjects aged between 20 - 46 (Average 31) were included in this study Metabolic Cell Support (MC-S) is manufactured in Australia
by Clinical Health PTY LTD:
MC-STM has been formulated using a pharmacological approach to natural
therapies, using a highly standardised multi polysaccharide enriched mix of three medicinal mushrooms, Ganaderma Lucidum, Lentinus edodes (mycelia), Coriolus versicolor, the herb Astragalus membranaceous (from the root) and L-ascorbic acid for added bioavailability, designed to strengthen and support human immune functions. (11)
Twenty HIV infected patients aged between 21 - 60 (Average 42) and 18 healthy subjects aged between 20 - 46 (Average 31) participated in the study, 30cc of blood was drawn from each subject on day 1 and then again on day 60. In both parts of the studies the whole blood was defibrinated using universal tubes containing 4mm glass beads and PBL’s were collected by density gradient centrifugation separation. In brief, 20 mL of defribinated blood, diluted 1:2 with Hanks buffered salt solution (HBSS), was overlayed on 15 mL of Ficoll-PaqueTM plus (Amersham Biosciences Uppsala, Sweden) and centrifuged (Sigma 3-16k Centrifuge, Sigma Laborzentrifugen Osterode, Germany) at 400g for 40 minutes at 200C. Following centrifugation, the PBL rich interface was harvested and pelleted by centrifugation. The PBL harvest was then washed twice with Hanks buffered salt solution (HBSS) and resuspended in AIM-V serum free media at a final concentration of 3x106 cells mL-1. Part 1 - The Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes were cultured with PHA in the
presence of different concentrations of MC-S (3-100 ug/ml) for 72 hours. The controls for this assay were non-treated non-stimulated PBL’s. The number and size of syncytia were evaluated and recorded. Part 2 - The twenty HIV patients and 18 healthy subjects orally taking MC-S at
concentration of 1 tablet per15 to 20 kg of body weight per day for a period of 2 months. Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes were tested day 1 and then again on day 60, the IL-2 and INF output was determined through the specification curve stimulates, the collection of supernate that was set at -20 degrees, then were tested for IL-2 and IFN production. The 60 day PBL tests were then compared to base Results:
Results represent the mean of 3 experiments performed in triplicate:
Part 1 - The percentages of inhibition in the syncytia formation (SF) group was
dose dependent, showing a significant reduction in SF at various concentration Part 2 - By this results, HIV patients and healthy subjects when orally taking MC-
S at concentration of 1 tablet per15 to 20 kg of body weight per day for a period of 2 months were able to promote his/her lymphocyte to significantly increase the production of IL-2 (a CD4 cell stimulant) and IFN ( a cytokine that can induce intracellular ant-viral activity) = (p<0.05 to <0.01). MC-S produced the highest density level of IL-2 and IFN in vitro at 100ug/ml in the 10a/ml PBMC fluid in Conclusion:
MC-S is a naturally derived biological response modifier. MC-S
demonstrates promising anti-HIV activity and immune stimulating
properties. These results suggest that if used in conjunction with mainstream
medicines MC-S could offer additional benefits to individuals suffering with
HIV / AIDS or living with impaired immunity. However, larger clinical
studies are needed to support these findings.
The author would like to acknowledge that this study was funded by Metabolic Research PTY LTD Australia and all research was conducted with an ethical and References:
1. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (2006). "Overview of the
global AIDS epidemic", 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic. 2. Greener, R. (2002). "AIDS and macroeconomic impact", in S, Forsyth (ed.):
State of The Art: AIDS and Economics, IAEN, 49-55. 3. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. AIDS epidemic update, 2005.
4. AIDS Society Conference Sydney ,UK journal, Lancet, Volume 370, Issue
5. Palella, F. J. Jr, Delaney, K. M., Moorman, A. C., Loveless, M. O., Fuhrer, J.,
Satten, G. A., Aschman and D. J., Holmberg, S. D. (1998). "Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators". N. Engl. J. Med 338 (13): 853-
6. Goudsmit J, Weverling GJ, van der Hoek L, de Ronde A, Miedema F, Coutinho
RA, et al. Carrier rate of zidovudine-resistant HIV-1: the impact of failing therapy on transmission of resistant strains. AIDS. 7. 2001;15:2293–301. Yerly S, Vora S, Rizzardi P, Chave JP, Vernazza PL, Flepp
M, et al. Acute HIV infection: impact on the spread of HIV and transmission of drug resistance. AIDS. 2001;15:2287–92. 8. Clark DA. Human Health Research Australia: A double blind placebo
controlled study monitoring healthy athletes consuming the commercial preparation of nutraceuticals MC-S. AJMH 9/2007 9. 2007 The University of Newcastle Research Associates and the School of
Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle. The anti-cancer effects of the commercial nutraceutical MC-S 10. Syncytia viral infections,
11. Clark DA. Adams MC. 2007. Using a commercial nutraceutical mix as an
immune stimulant: an in vitro proliferation study using MC-S. AJMH 9/2007


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