Microsoft word - human & social biology.doc

Ministry of Education
Department of Curriculum Development and Evaluation
Critical to the success of our secondary education programme is the recognition of individual talents, needs and learning styles. authorise the publication of this senior Hence, the role of the teacher in the classroom secondary syllabus which marks a watershed in manager and facilitator; a director of learning milestone of progress in fulfilment of the goals students’ needs to take on board a measure of accountability and responsibility for their own Education, Government Paper No. 2 of 1994. learning. S/he must also take into account the widening range of ability of the student body and the different levels of achievement which technological change and an increasingly inter- they aspire to. This means active participation dependent global economy, it is essential that for all and the creation of rich and diverse preparing children adequately for their future. Survival in the coming millennium will depend It is important then that we value the students’ on the ability to accommodate change and to own experiences, build upon what they know adapt to environmental needs and emerging and reward them for positive achievement. At socio-economic trends. It is the wish of the same time, we must be prepared to offer government to prepare Batswana for future them guidance and counselling at all levels; growth and adaptation to ongoing change in assisting them to make the best decisions in the socio-economic context; specifically the keeping with their own interests, career transition from an agro-based economy to the prospects and preferences. In that way we shall more broadly based industrial economy which prevail in nurturing at the roots of our system, the national ideals of democracy, development, self-reliance, unity and social harmony. The senior secondary programme builds on the This syllabus document is the outcome of a seeks to provide quality learning experiences. great deal of professional consultation and It aims to prepare our students for the world of collaboration. On behalf of the Ministry, I work, further education and lifelong learning. wish to record my appreciation and thank However, secondary education must also pay sincerely those who contributed to and were attention to the all round development of the involved in the production of this syllabus. individual. It should provide not only for the acquisition of those skills needed for economic, advancement. It should also provide for the development of cultural and national identity and the inculcation of attitudes and values which nurture respect for one’s self and for ACKNOWLEGDEMENTS
Introduction . i Rationale . i Aims of Senior Secondary Programme . ii Aims of Senior Secondary Human and Social Biology Programme . ii Recommended Teaching Methods . iii Assessment Objectives . iii Assessment. iv . 1
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Aims of Senior Secondary Programme
On completion of the two year secondary programme learners should have: - acquired knowledge, developed confidence and ability to assess their personal strengths and weaknesses and be realistic in choosing appropriate career/employment opportunities and/or further education and training. 2. developed skills to assist them in solving technical and technological problems as they relate to day-to-day 3. developed desirable attitudes and behavioural patterns in interacting with the environment in a manner that is 4. acquired attitudes and values, developed basic skills and understanding to allow for execution of rights and responsibilities as good citizens of Botswana and the world. 5. developed information technology skills as well as an understanding and appreciation of their influence in 6. acquired knowledge, attitudes and practices that will ensure good family and health practices, including awareness and management of epidemics (such as HIV/AIDS), that prepare them for productive life. 7. developed pre-vocational knowledge and manipulative skills that will enable them to apply content learnt and attitudes and values developed to practical life situations in the world of work. 8. developed an understanding of and acquired basic skills in business, everyday commercial transactions and 9. developed foundation skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, communication, inquiring, team work / interpersonal to help them to be productive and adaptive to survive in a changing environment. Aims of Senior Secondary Agriculture
Recommended teaching methods
Assessment Objectives
Dimension 1
Knowledge with understanding
Dimension 2
Handling information and solving problems
Dimension 3
Practical skills and techniques
Assessment Procedures
General Objective
Specific Objective
Activities of living
list the characteristic activities of living organism
organisms; feeding, respiring, excreting, growing, responding to stimuli, moving, reproducing. Organisms affecting Acquire
describe viruses as non-cellular, parasitic and human health
describe bacteria as unicellular, with a cellwall and DNA but no nucleus; some pathogenic and describe fungi as having a mycelium of thread like hyphae, some being pathogenic and causing athlete’s foot and ringworm, species of Tenia. describe protozoa as unicellular animals some describe flatworms as multicellular animals, reproducing both sexually and asexually, with complex life histories involving at least two host describe insects as multicellular animals with exoskeleton, segmented bodies and jointed limbs, life cycles , some insects disease vectors Cells, the building Acquire knowledge on cell, -
describe the structure of the animal and plant cells blocks in organization their
as composed of cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall ( plant and bacteria cell only), nuclear describe the functions of the cell membrane in controlling the passage of materials into and out describe the function of the mitochondria as Movement
of Acquire
define diffusion as the movement of molecules particles in cells
from a region where they are at a higher concentration to a region where they are at a lower concentration i.e. down a concentration define osmosis ( a special form of diffusion) as movement of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration to aregion of their lower concentration through a selective permeable explain the concept active transport as involving Cell organization
describe the structure and function of the following tissues: epithelium, (lining of trachea, define the term organ, with reference to the eye (retina, lens, choroid, sclera, iris etc MODULE TWO
General Objective
Specific Objective
Food production
state the role of green plants as primary producers define photosynthesis as the production of carbohydrates from water and carbon dioxide, using light energy, in the presence of chlorophyll, state the dependence of all living organisms, re-cycle
of Acquire
describe the carbon cycle in terms of the fixation of carbon from carbon dioxide in photosynthesis, its transfer as carbohydrate to animals and release back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide as a MODULE THREE:
General Objective
Specific Objective
of Acquire
list the major nutrients and state their sources and nutrients
• carbohydrates : sugars and starch, digestible, and used as an energy source, for storage • cellulose from plant cell, indigestible (fibre • proteins: used for growth and repair of tissues and as a component of haemoglobin, insulin, • fats (lipids) : used in the formation of cell membranes, as an energy source as a storage material, and as a solvent for vitamin D describe or carry out the benedict’s test for reducing sugars, the Iodine test for starch, the Beuret test for proteins, and the grease spot test list the principal sources of vitamins C and D, and of the inorganic elements calcium and iron relate vitamin C to the formation of epithelial tissues and thus to the healing of wounds relate vitamin D to the absorption of calcium ions from the ileum and to the prevention of rickets in list the uses of calcium ions in the formation of bones and teeth, in blood clotting and in muscular state the use of iron in the formation haemoglobin Water and dietary Acquire
outline the uses of water in the body : as a fibre (roughage)
rearrangement in the digestion (hydrolysis) of food, as a solvent and as a transport medium and component of body fluids and of cytoplasm describe the role of fibre in the evacuation of the Sources of nutrients
discuss the relative values, as sources of nutrients, of foods obtained from animals (meat, fish, milk and milk products) and foods obtained from plant Balanced diet
define a balanced diet as a diet sufficient in all food nutrients in the right quantity and quality of proteins, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals, fibre , water and energy to sustain a healthy life compare malnutrition as a lack of balanced diet, either as a shortage of particular nutrients ( vit D and rickets) or as an excess (excess carbohydrate leading to obesity and coronary hear disease) list the food and drink consumed in one week, MODULE FOUR:
General Objective
Specific Objective
Teeth and the break Acquire
state the increase in surface area : volume ratio down of food
describe need for chewing and peristalsis state the cause of dental decay and describe the and Acquire
define enzymes as proteins that act as biological properties of enzymes
catalysts involved in all biochemical processes, including digestion, respiration and protein state the effects of change in temperature and pH The alimentary canal
identify from drawing the main structures of the alimentary canal : mouth, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestines, colon, rectum and describe peristalsis as a muscular movement, mixing and propelling food along the intestine outline the functions of I) the pancreas ii) the liver state the functions of amylase, protease and lipase in the production of reducing sugars, amino acids state the main sites of the digestion of proteins state the main site s of digestion of starch to describe the need for the emulsification of fats state, describe and explain the process of absorption of the products of digestion (structure state the function of the colon as the site of describe the assimilation of the products of define defecation, constipation and diarrhoea MODULE FIVE:
General Objective
Specific Objective
and Acquire
identify red cells, phagocytes and lymphocytes function of blood
state the origin of RBCs, WBCs and platelets state the function of red blood cells in terms of state the functions of white blood cells in the phagocytosisi ; formation of antibodies to state the functions of plasma as the transport of the products of digestion and carbon dioxide, outline the function of platelets during the clotting of blood, soluble fibrinogen being converted to state the other function of clotting as to protect the body from loss of blood and entry of pathogens MODULE SIX:
General Objective
Specific Objective
and Acquire
define breathing as the movement of air in and out gaseous exchange
describe and recognize from a drawing the arrangement of the trachea, bronchi, outline of the lungs and diaphragm as seen in a frontal section describe the roles of the ribs, intercostal muscles and the diaphragm in the process of breathing describe the relationship between changes in pressure and volume in the lungs during breathing define gaseous exchange as uptake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide in the alveoli state the differences between inspired and expired describe the effects of change in physical activity describe the technique of mouth to mouth Respiration
and Acquire
define respiration as the release of energy from energy transfer
state the equation of aerobic respiration, using list activities where energy is required: e.g. cell division, active transport, maintenance of a constant body temperature, muscular action Diseases associated
list the toxic material in cigarette smoke; nicotine, with tobacco smoke
state the effects of tar as a carcinogen (causes discuss the effects of nicotine and carbon monoxide on the body and on a developing fetus describe effects of cigarette smoke on the cilia which form the cleaning mechanism of the lungs MODULE SEVEN:
General Objective
Specific Objective
the Acquire knowledge of the -
list the functions of the skeleton : support, skeleton
protection of soft tissue, increase effectiveness of movement by providing levers, as site for distinguish between tendons (attach muscles to bees, inelastic) and ligaments ( join bone to bone , identify from a drawing and describe the action of : a hinge joint (e.g. elbow), and a ball and socket and Acquire knowledge of how -
describe muscle as tissue which produces movement
movement by contraction ( and relaxation) using identify the bones of the arm and shoulder, and show the origins and insertions of the biceps and describe the role of circular muscles in peristalsis and the movements in the iris and cilliary body of MODULE EIGHT:
General Objective
Specific Objective
define homeostasis as the maintenance of a locate and name the main organs which maintain a constant internal environment namely : pancreas and liver ( blood glucose), kidneys (water content identify and label on a diagram of the skin: hairs, sweat glands, receptors and blood vessels describe the maintenance of constant temperature discuss the co-ordinating role of the brain in Regulation of body Acquire
define excretion as the removal of waste products of metabolism and or toxic materials from blood - identify parts of the urinary system : kidneys, state the functions of the parts of the urinary describe the function of the kidney as a process of filtration followed by selective reabsorption of : glucose, salt, urea, water, resulting in the adjustment of the concentration of blood plasma relate the process of filtration to blood pressure in the glomerulus, collection of filtrate in the Bowman’s capsule and reabsorption of materials at appropriate sections in the kidney tubule Regulation of body Acquire knowledge of how the -
explain the concept of negative feed back temperature
define regulation of body temperature as maintaining a steady internal temperature by identify from a drawing the main structures involved in heat loss by the skin: sweat glands and ducts, capillaries and associated arterioles relate the evaporation of sweat to the concept of describe the effects of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the skin describe the loss of heat through the lungs during Regulation of blood Acquire
state that the pancreas secrets insulin when blood describe the part played by the liver in the formation of insoluble glycogen in response to describe diabetes as insufficient release of insulin describe the effect of glucagon, released by the pancreas, on the liver and explain the part it plays MODULE NINE:
General Objective
Specific Objective
list the stimuli to which the sense organs respond: light energy, sound energy, temperature change, Structure
and Acquire knowledge of the -
describe and identify from a drawing a horizontal functions of the eye
section through the eye : optic nerve, lens, sclera, cornea, iris, retina choroid, cilliary muscles aqueous humor , blind spot, fovea and suspensory describe the action of the components of the eye in forming inverted images on the retina discuss short sightedness and long sightedness state the function of the retina in transforming describe the reflex action of the circular and radial muscles of the iris in regulating the amount Nervous system
state the main divisions of the nervous system : central nervous system (CNS) comprising the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system distinguish between a neurone and a nerve describe and recognize from a drawing a simple state the role of the sensory, intermediate and relate the control of movement at the elbow in withdrawing the hand from a stimulus to reflex carryout simple experiment to demonstrate reflex Hormones
define a hormone as a chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target state the role of adrenalin in co-ordination progesterone in the menstrual cycle and in distinguish between the hormonal and nervous control systems (chemical substance or impulse: in terms of speed of response, widespread or localized response, long-term or short-lived Alcohol and other Be aware of the dangers of -
describe the short-term effects of alcohol on reaction time (rate of transmission of impulses), co-ordination and the ability to make rational state the short term and long term effects on the brain and liver of excessive intake of alcohol state the physical and social effects of marijuana, MODULE TEN:
General Objective
Specific Objective
The reproductive
define a gamete as either a sperm or an ovum, having half the number of chromosomes found in describe sexual reproduction as the process involving the fusion of nuclei from two different identify from a drawing the structure of the male and female reproductive system, as seen in side state the function of: testis, sperm duct, prostate gland, urethra, ovary, oviduct, uterus, cervix, describe the menstrual cycle and the production of describe the roles of oestrogen and progesterone in Fertilization
describe fertilization and early development of the zygote in terms of the formation of the ball of cells which becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus describe the development of the fetus in terms of dependence on the placenta for exchange of food materials, oxygen,, urea and carbon dioxide distinguish between identical and fraternal twins describe the placenta as a barrier , separating describe the passage of nicotine, alcohol and some viruses from the mother to fetus through the state the protective function of the amniotic fluid, in terms of even distribution of pressure around the describe the three stages of birth: labor, opening (dilation), delivery and after birth (expulsion) Family planning
describe family planning as a means of limiting the number of children in the family and of spacing births, thus giving both mother and children a better chance of receiving adequate nutrition and other resources of developing good health discuss the dangers of teenage pregnancy list methods of birth control, stating practical advantages and disadvantages : rhythm (safe period), condom, cap, intra-uterine device (IUD, coil, loop), oral contraceptive pill, sterilization (vasectomy for males, tying of oviduct for Heredity : Units and
define inheritance as the transmission of genetic processes
information (genes) from one generation to the define a gene as a length of DNA coding for a particular characteristic, and distinguish clearly state that genes are carried on thread-like structures, made of protein and DNA, called define mitosis as a nuclear division resulting in the formation of two nuclei with the same number of chromosomes and same genetic content , as the define meiosis as a nuclear division resulting in a halving of the chromosome number, and the production of variation, during the formation of Monohybrid
define the terms dominant , recessive, genotype, inheritance
using symbols, draw and interpret diagrams to show the genetic characteristics of the offspring using symbols, draw and interpret diagrams to MODULE ELEVEN:
General Objective
Specific Objective
Health and disease
define good health as a state of physical and mental wellbeing, dependent on receiving a balanced diet and on appropriate physical and define disease as a loss of health resulting from a disturbance of the normal processes of the body, or due to various causes such as malnutrition, infectious organisms, degeneration of organs / Non-transmissible
describe nutritional deficiency disease illustrated diseases and
describe degenerative diseases, as illustrated by describe cancer, as illustrated by lung cancer describe inherited disorder, as illustrated by Transmissible
distinguish between signs of a disease (e.g. rash, diseases
high temperature), which can be seen or measured, and symptoms (e.g. pain) which can only be Influenza
name the causative organism (virus) and the method of spread (droplet airborne) and methods Gonorrhoea and
state the method of control and prevention AIDS (acquired
immune deficiency
state the causative organism ( human immuno- syndrome)
defiency virus, HIV) and the methods of spread: sexual intercourse, use of contaminated needles for injecting drugs, blood transfusion; methods of name the causative organism (bacterium) and methods of spread: contamination of human food control of spread by sanitary disposal of faeces, preventing access for house flies to faeces, careful washing of hands after using the toilet / water closet and tracing of carriers, followed by medical Tuberculosis
name the causative organism as a bacterium (Mycobacterium tubeculosis), capable of forming spores and therefore of surviving drying ; state overcrowding, avoiding spitting, BCG vaccination, early diagnosis by mass X-ray, drug treatment state the chief signs and symptoms, including name the causative organism as a bacterium (vibro), spread by water contaminated with describe control by sanitary disposal of faeces and through chlorination of drinking water; occurrence MODULE TWELVE:
General Objective
Specific Objective
Personal Hygiene
discuss the importance of cleaning the body, particularly the pubic, anal regions and the hands, discuss the meaning and importance of sanitary the Acquire
that understanding about control of -
describe the use of high temperature as a means cause disease
of destroying pathogens in cooking, steam describe the use of chemical sterilization agents, with particular reference to the use of chlorine distinguish between antiseptics which inhibit the reproduction of bacteria and disinfectants which kill bacteria but also damage human tissue Antibiotics
discuss the use of antibiotics, illustrated by the use of penicillin in the treatment of gonorrhoea Control of vectors
state the principles of controlling a disease by controlling the vector that transmits the pathogen, illustrated by methods of controlling houseflies explain the need for knowing the life cycle and MODULE THIRTEEN:
General Objective
Specific Objective
define active immunity, illustrated by immunity to tuberculosis gained naturally during recovery from the disease, and artificially through BCG define passive immunity, illustrated by immunity to tetanus gained by injection with the immune discuss the differences between active, natural, discuss the WHO campaign to eliminate small pox and the immunization programme to control MODULE FOURTEEN:
General Objective
Specific Objective
Sewage disposal
state the risks from leaving sewage untreated and describe, and identify from a drawing a section state the reasons for the careful siting of the pit state the part played by micro-organisms in making sewage harmless and the effluent safe for Save drinking water
compare the relative purity of water e.g. rivers, shallow wells, boreholes and rain water collected discuss the effects of boiling water for drinking describe the large scale treatment of water (filtration, sedimentation, chlorinating etc) Refuse disposal
state the dangers from allowing domestic waste to accumulate around living quarters; attracting house flies and providing suitable conditions for breeding; attraction of rats and mice (vectors of state the reasons for, and methods of controlling relate the life cycle of the house fly to the need for the regular emptying of bins for domestic waste state the methods of disposal of domestic refuse: destruction by burning at very high temperature), compacting refuse at communal sites to make it MODULE FIFTEEN:
General Objective
Specific Objective
Air pollution
state the toxic components of motor exhaust fumes, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides describe the effects of lead on the body describe the causes and effects of global warming Water pollution
describe the undesirable effects of water pollution by: discharge of untreated sewage (cholera); discharge of chemical waste from industrial plants; surface run-off of chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides), discharge of oils at sea, from garages, solid matter / litter Deforestation
state the effects of deforestation on the state the effects of veld fires to the environment



G. Bala Krishna Pai Versus Sree Narayana Medical Mission General Hospital CMCL 930a NATIONAL CONSUMER DISPUTES REDRESSAL COMMISSION, NEW DELHI HON’BLE MR. JUSTICE S.N. KAPOOR, PRESIDING MEMBERSree Narayana Medical Mission General Hospital And T.B. Clinic & Ors. [From the order dated 12.3.1996 in Complaint No. 103/1996 of the State Consumer Law—Medical Negligence—Claim for com

Microsoft word - nbac intake form.doc

Dear Doctor: Thank you for referring your patient to the Newport Beach Anticoagulation Clinic (NBAC). Please complete and sign the order below. Your signature indicates that you are requesting the Anticoagulation staff to manage your patient according to Newport Beach Anticoagulation Clinic Coumadin Titration – Standard Procedure. If your patient is unable to comply with the clinic protocol (i

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