Cytoplasmic and Membranous CEACAM1 Has Different
Impacts on Angiogenesis in Gastric Non-Neoplastic
and Neoplastic Lesions
Jian-Qiang Guo, Hong-Juan Wang, Bin Liu, and Kong-Xi Zhu Department of Digestive Disease, The Second Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250033 This study was designed to investigate the expression patterns of CEACAM1 and its relationship with angiogenesis in nonneoplastic and neoplastic gastric lesions. CEACAM1 and TGF-β expression was detectedbyimmunohistochemical staining and dual-labeling immunohistochemical staining in neoplastic and nonneoplasticlesions. MVD-CD31 and MVD-CD105 were counted in CEACAM1-positive areas by dual-labeling immunohis-tochemistry. There was no expression of CEACAM1 in normal gastric mucosa. In IM and GIN, CEACAM1 was mainlyexpressed with membranous pattern. CEACAM1 was expressed with membranous pattern in well-differentiatedadenocarcinoma, with cytoplasmic pattern in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, and with cytoplasmic andmembranous pattern mixed together in intermediately adenocarcinoma. The expression patterns of CEACAM1showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Coexpression of CEACAM1 andTGF-β was elevated and significantly different from nonneoplastic to neoplastic lesions (P < 0.05). Moreover,CEACAM1 and TGF-β coexpression were related to carcinoma progression (r = 0.35; P < 0.05). MVD-CD31 andMVD-CD105 showed significant differences from nonneoplastic to neoplastic lesions (P < 0.05). We suggest thatCEACAM1 had different expression patterns in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. The coexpression ofCEACAM1 and TGF-β increased from nonneoplastic to neoplastic lesions and might be related with tumor pro-gression via promoting tumorous angiogenesis.
Key Words: CEACAM1, TGF-β, MVD, gastric premalignant, malignant lesions
Inhibition of Gastric Motility by Endogenous H2S via Enteric
Nervous System
Yan-Fang Ye, Wen Lu, Jian-Chun Zhu, Ya-Hui Du, Ke-Jing Liu, Jun-fang Qin, Mei Feng, Department of Physiology and Provisional Key Lab of Mental Disorders, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) might be a gastrotransmitter in enteric nervous system and might be involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility and secretion. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of endogenousH2S on gastric motility. In in vivo experiments, the intragastric pressure of rats were monitored, and in in vitroexperiments, the spontaneous contraction of muscle strips of gastric body was recorded. The location ofcystathionine-beta-synthetase (CSE) and cystathionine-gama-lyase (CBS) in stomach was studied by immnohis-tochemistry staining and Western blot. Systemic L-cysteine (100 µmol/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased intragastricpressure. In vitro, L-cysteine (10-4 M – 5 × 10-3 M) and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) (5 × 10-4 M – 5 × 10-3 M)significantly decreased the contraction of the muscle strips from gastric body. This effect of L-cysteine on musclestrip was not influenced by pretreatment of L-NAME and glibenclamide but was reversed by TTX. In in vitroexperiments, administration of PAG (10-6 M – 10-3 M), the specific inhibitor of CSE, or AOAA (10-6 M), the specificinhibitor of CBS, significantly increased the mean tension of gastric muscle strips. Both PAG and AOAA significantlyreversed the inhibitory effect of L-cysteine on gastric motility in vitro. Both CBS and CSE were located in the myentericplexus of stomach. We concluded that enzyme endogenous H2S inhibited gastric motility via ENS. H2S might bea physiologic relaxant of gastric smooth muscle and exert tonic inhibition on gastric motility.
Key Words: hydrogen sulfide, stomach, smooth muscle, motility, L-cysteine
The Second Cross-Strait Joint Symposium on Adaptive Medicine and Adaptability Overpressed SOX9 Promotes the Progression of
Gastric Carcinoma
Department of Digestive Disease, The Second Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250033 This study was to investigate the SOX9 expression and its effects on promoting invasion and metastasis in the primary gastric adenocarcinomas. One hundred and eighty six patients with primary gastric adenocarcinomas whounderwent surgery between 2002 and 2006 were classified as low, intermediate, and high SOX9 expression groupsby immunohistochemistry (IHC). Our IHC performance showed that SOX9 was lowly expressed in lower crypt of thenormal epithelium adjacent to the tumor, and SOX9 expression was also observed in the intestinal metaplasticepithelium, but no SOX9 expression was detected in the surface epithelium. The stronger SOX9 expression wasobserved in the T3-T4 group than in the T1-T2 group, and there was a significant difference between the two groups(P < 0.0005). The SOX9 expression was correlated with the lymph node metastasis, and it showed significantbetween N0, N1, N2, and N3 groups (P < 0.0005). Similar to the lymph node metastasis classification, the SOX9expression was also related to the tumor staging. From the stage Ia–Ib to stage II–IIIa and stage IIIb–IV, the SOX9expression was elevated and the difference was significant (P < 0.0005). On the contrary, the SOX9 expression wasnot related to the histological classification (P > 0.05). Also the SOX9 expression showed no significance in patientage (P > 0.05). The SOX9 is overexpressed in the advanced stage of gastric carcinoma. SOX9 is related to the tumorprogression though promoting invasion and metastasis, probably via enhancing the adhesion between the tumorcells and matrix or vessels which facilitates the tumor cells metastasis.
Key Words: SOX9, gastric adenocarcinoma, tumor progression
Analysis of Fitness Training in Jinan Physical Health Effects
in Obese Adolescents
Institute of Physical Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 With China’s reform and opening up, its social, political, economic and educational developments have been rapidly changed. People’s living standard has improved significantly. In this study, Jinan, Shandong Lu Long sportsclub for weight loss in young people, 35 subjects were selected for experiments. Young people in the 15-18 yearsof age, 92-105 kg, 160-180 cm in height joined the study, and went through systematic, scientific conduct weeklyfitness training, physical fitness after training, the experimenter physical fitness training and evaluation indicators.
In this study, experimental and mathematical statistics, research methods and other control methods, throughphysical fitness training, can effectively reduce the body fat percentage, a significant reduction in waist and abdomenfat, reducing the chances of young people suffering from high blood pressure, can also improve body shape, improvecardiovascular elasticity index, enhance the function of the cardiovascular system, improve the body’s vital capacityand the body’s ability to exercise capacity.
Key Words: fitries straining, obesity, youngster, physical health
Interventional Clinical Effect of JieDu Granules on
Inflammatory Midiators in Type 2 Diabeties Mellitus
Ai-Li Sun, Shi-Hong Chen, Hui-Ling Song, and Xiang-Hua Zhuang Department of Health, the Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250033 The study was to explore the synergistic effect of Jiedu granules with corresponding hypoglycemic agents on level of insulin sensitivity in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and its influence on related inflammatory mediators.
Totally 76 cases with type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected. All the cases whose blood sugar levels being controlledin an ideal scope (7.0 mmol/L - 8.0 mmol/L),were randomly divided into 2 groups. At the end of the study, 37 casesin the control group were treated with Metformin and Dimacron DR. Thirty-nine cases in the treated group weretreated with JieDu grannules besides routine method. The level of blood sugar, TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, were measuredand compared, HOMA-IR were calculated. After 6- month treatment, serum levels of TNF-α and HOMA-IR weresignificantly decreased in treated group, and the effect was better than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The levelof IL-6 and CRP in the treated group were decreased, but insignificant (P > 0.05). Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6 andCRP in the control group had no change before and after treatment (P > 0.05). Wehave demonstrated that in-flammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, CRP) were significantly deceased and HOMA-IR were significantly lower in type2 diabetes mellitus with JieDu granules.
Key Words: diabeties mellitus, JieDu granules, clinical effect, inflammatory mediators
Meclofenamic Acid Impairs Visual Transduction by
Blocking Gap Junction Communication between
Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells
Hui Sun1, 2, Ying Wen3, Yan Li1, 2, Jie An4, and Jingxin Li1, 2 1Department of Physiology, Shandong University School of Medicine 2Key Laboratory of Medical Neuroiology of Shandong University 3Shandong Shierming Ophthalmology Hospital 4Department of Pharmacology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used medications because they provide effective relief of chronic pain and inflammation via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). Usual therapeutic doses of mostNSAIDs may cause CNS side-effects, including headaches, dizziness, vertigo and drowsiness. Visual side-effectsalso have been reported such as blurred vision, color vision changes and dry eye. With chronic use, permanent visionloss and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or retinal changes can occur. However, the underlying mechanism(s)through which NSAIDs affect vision remain unclear. In our study, we applied whole cell voltage-clamp recording andimage analysis to directly measure junctional coupling, and applied electroretinography (ERG) and histologicexamination to study the morphological and functional damage of the retina after meclofenamic acid (MFA) treatment,a common clinically used NSAID. We revealed that the gap junctions functionally exist in the RPE, which wereblocked by MFA. MFA markedly decreased the amplitudes of b-wave of Rod-response and a- and b-wave of thescotopic Standard Combined ERG, respectively, and induced morphological destruction of the retina, especiallyphotoreceptor cells. We conclude that MFA can impair the visual transduction in part by blocking the gap junctioncommunication between the RPE cells. These findings may explain, at least partially, the vision problems of certainclinically used NSAIDs.
Key Words: retinal pigment epithelium, meclofenamic acid, gap junction, electroretinography, vision
The Second Cross-Strait Joint Symposium on Adaptive Medicine and Adaptability Serum Lipin1 Is Related with Insulin Resistance in
Diabetic Patients
Shi-Hong Chen, Xiang-Hua Zhuang, Yuan-Tao Liu, Xiao-Bo Li, and Ai-Li Sun Department of Endocrinology, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250033 Lipin1 was a recently discovered adipocyte-secreted hormone, may link obesity with insulin resistance and diabetes. Lipin1 has important roles in glycerolipid biosynthesis and gene regulation, and mutations in thecorresponding genes cause lipodystrophy, myoglobinuria, and inflammatory disorders. In this study we investigatedwhether serumlipin1 level was altered in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 85 patients withT2DM and 107 sex- and age matched non-diabetic subjects were studied. Serum lipin1 as well as adiponectin andleptin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results showed that serum lipin1 was found to be reduced in patientswith T2DM. Adiponectin level was decreased and serum leptin level was increased. The level of serum lipin1 wasnegatively correlated to BMI, WHR, HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, leptin, serum glucose, triglycerides (TG), uric acid(UA), was positively correlated to adiponectin level. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed HOMA-IR and TGwere independent factors that influenced the level of serum lipin1. Our results indicate that lipin1 may play a role inthe development of insulin resistance and T2DM.
Key Words: lipin1, insulin resistance, HOMA-IR, adiponectin
Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Suppresses Thrombin Generation
and Inflammatory Responses following Focal Cerebral
Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats
Xia Sun, Xin-Bing Wei, Si-Feng Qu, Yun-Xue Zhao, and Xiu-Mei Zhang Department of Pharmacology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 Hydroxysafflor Yellow A has been demonstrated to attenuate pressure overloaded hypertrophy in rats and inhibit platelet aggregation. Herein we found that Hydroxysafflor Yellow A prevented cerebral ischemia-reperfusioninjury by inhibition of thrombin generation. In addition, treatment with Hydroxysafflor Yellow A significantly inhibitedNF-kappaB p65 nuclear translation and p65 binding activity, both mRNA and protein levels of ICAM-1 and theinfiltration of neutrophils. Mean while, Hydroxysafflor Yellow A had the capacity to improve neurological deficitscores, increase the number of the surviving hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and decrease the plasma angiotensinII level. These results illustrated that anti-cerebral ischemic mechanism of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A may be due toits suppression of thrombin generation and inhibition of thrombin-induced inflammatory responses by reducingangiotensin II content.
Key Words: hydroxysafflor yellow A, cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, thrombin, inflammation
Effect of Combination of Docetaxel and Cisplatin on
Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells In Vitro
1Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 2The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250033 This study was to investigate the effect of combination of docetaxel and cisplatin on the human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 and AGS, and to explore its effect on the expression of multi-drug resistance gene MDR1 andMRP1. SGC7901 and AGS cells were divided into four group rsespectively: untreated cells (control group), thosetreated with docetaxel alone (docetaxel group), those treated with cisplatin alone (cisplatin group), and those treatedwith both docetaxel and cisplatin (docetaxel + cisplatin group). Cellular morphology was observed by phase contrast,light microscope and electron microscope. The proliferation of cells was detected using the Cell Counting Kit-8. Flowcytometry was used cell cycle analysis. RT-PCR was applied to detect the mRNA expression of MDR1 and MRP1.
Docetaxel combined with cisplatin can strongly enhance cisplatin alone mediated inhibition of the proliferation ofgastric cancer cells and significantly inhibit the expression of multidrug resistance genes.
Key Words: docetaxel, cisplatin, gastric cancer, multidrug resistance gene, cell proliferation
Iris Fixation of Foldable Intraocular Lenses in the
Absence of Capsule Support
The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250033 This study is to evaluate the application and effect of iris fixation of foldable intraocular lenses in the absence of capsule support. Aphakia cases without normal lens capsular support at the Second Hospital of ShandongUniversity from January 2008 to January 2010 except for the cases with corneal astigmatism more than 1.5D or bestcorrected visual acuity less than 0.1, were divided into an observe group and a control group randomly. For the 13cases in the observe group, 3.0 mm transparent cornea incision was made in transparent cornea, and a foldable IOLwas implanted in posterior chamber using unfolder with both loops sutured in iris by 10-0 polypropylene. All thepatients were followed up for 3 months. The preoperative naked vision, BCVA, refractive status, anterior segment,intraocular pressure, postoperative naked vision, BCVA, refractive status, anterior segment ,intraocular pressure andcomplications were summarized, naked vision, BCVA, surgery induced astigmatism (SIA), the differences betweenpostoperative residual refractive and preoperative expectations and the intraocular pressures (IOP) were analyzedand compared with the control group of 10 cases for implantation scleral-fixed foldable intraocular lenses usingtweezers through a 4.0 mm transparent cornea incision. There was no significant difference between the ob-serve group and the control group in preoperative naked vision and BCVA, but the postoperative naked vision inthe observe group is greater than that in the control group after three months (t = 2.258, P = 0.035). The differencesbetween postoperative residual refractive and preoperative expectations and the the surgery induced astigmatism(SIA) in the observe group are both less than those in the control group (for former, t = 2.363, P = 0.028; for SIA,t = 3.77, P = 0.01). There was no significant statistical difference between the IOPs of two groups whether beforeor after operation. In the observe group, all the IOLs were in proper places. However, intraocular lens decentrationhas accured in one case of the control group. No serious complications were found in all the cases. For the aphakiawithout a sufficient posterior capsular lens supported, the iris fixation of foldable intraocular lens compared withscleral fixation is a safe, effective and feasible method for the advantages of better postoperative visual acuity,smaller surgery induced astigmatism, better intraocular lens predictability, and fewer postoperative complications.
Key Words: iris fixation, absence of capsular support, best corrected visual acuity, surgery induced astigmatism,
The Second Cross-Strait Joint Symposium on Adaptive Medicine and Adaptability P-11 Cytoplasmic Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion
Molecule 1 (CEACAM1) Promotes Angiogenesis in
Gastric Carcinomas
Bin Liu, Kong-Xi Zhu, Wei-Hua Xu, Hong-Bo Wang, Wei-Hua Yu, Hong-Li Wu, and Jian-Qiang Guo Department of Digestive Disease, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, 247 BeiYuan Street, Jinan 250033 The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) and its effects on promoting angiogenesis in gastric adenocarcinomas. Paraffin wax sectionsof 222 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas having undergone surgery between 2001 and 2006 were classifiedinto three histotypes: intestinal, diffuse, and mixed carcinomas following the Laüren classification. Immunohis-tochemistry (IHC) was used to study the distribution of CEACAM1, and double-labeling immunohistochemistry wasused to observe the relationship between CEACAM1 expression and neovascularization in carcinoma areas. NoCEACAM1 expression was found in normal non-metaplastic mucosa adjacent to the tumors; but in metaplasticmucosa, CEACAM1 was expressed on the apical surface. However, all of the collected gastric carcinomas expressedCEACAM1 with cytoplasmic or membranous staining. CEACAM1 was expressed mainly with a membranous patternin the intestinal carcinomas, and with a cytoplasmic pattern in the diffuse carcinomas. There was a significant dif-ference between the expression patterns and the histotypes (P < 0.0001). CEACAM1 expression was classified ashigh (X66% positive cells) and low (o66% positive cells), and high CEACAM1 expression was associated with lymphnodes metastasis (P < 0.05). High microvessel density (MVD) was observed more frequently in the tumors withmembranous expression, and low MVD in the tumors with cytoplasmic staining (P < 0.0001). The transformation ofCEACAM1 distribution from membrane to cytoplasm is an important incident for the reverse effects on the tumorousangiogenesis, and high expression of CEACAM1 facilitates the metastasis of carcinoma cells to lymph nodes.
Moreover, the different distribution of CEACAM1 in the intestinal and diffuse carcinomas indicates a differenttumorigenic pathway.
Key Words: CEACAM1, angiogenesis, gastric carcinoma
Clinical Research of High Risk Human Papillomavirus
Infection in Intraductal Papilloma of Breast
Rong Ma1, *, Jian-Qi Huang1, 2, Yan-Rong Lv1, Lei-Yi Wang2, Zhen-Ping Liu2, and Ting-Ting Ma1 1Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University 2Department of Gene, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan To examine the infection of 13 high risk human papilloma-virus (HR-HPV) in Intraductal papilloma of breast, hybrid capture II technique was done in 30 nipple discharges samples or tumor tissues from the patients withintraductal papilloma of breast and 18 tissues from the patients with breast fibroadenoma. The infection of high riskhuman papilloma-virus DNA (HR-HPV DNA) was also examined. In 30 patients with intraductal papilloma of breast,there are 3 positive of HR-HPV DNA, positive rate is 10%. No HR-HPV DNA was found in the 18 tissues from thepatients with breast fibroadenoma. The 3 positives are all the Central-type intraductal papilloma. There are cleardifference between the positive rate of HR-HPV of the Central-type intraductal papilloma and Peripheral intraductalpapilloma (P < 0.05). HR-HPV DNA infection exists in intraductal papilloma, and HR-HPV may infect the breastthrough the duct opening. Our results can’t support that HR-HPV is associated with the development and can-cerization of intraductal papilloma.
Key Words: intraductal papilloma of breast, high risk human papillomavirus, hybrid capture II
Epidemiological Survey on Fatty Liver and Its Risk Factors in
A General Adult Population of Jinan
Xi-mei Gao1, *, Xiao-Yun Yang1, Xiao Guan1, Jing Wang2, and Min Chen1 1Department of Health Examination Center, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan 250012 2Intensive Care Unit, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan 250012 In the present study, the prevalence of fatty liver and its major risk factors among adult residents in Jinan were investigated, in an attempt to provide evidences for primary prevention of fatty liver. A total of 2162 residents agedover 18 years from Jinan were enrolled in this survey. Physical examination, liver function, serum lipid-profile, fastingglucose level and ultrasonographic examination of liver were undertaken. Our results showed that the prevalenceof fatty liver in Jinan adult residents was 20.3% (male 22.0%, female 18.0%, P < 0.05). The prevalence of fatty liverreached a peak from 40 to 50 years in male and from 50 to 70 years in female. Logistic regression analysisdemonstrated that the prevalence of fatty liver was significantly correlated to male sex, body mass index (BMI), waistcircumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose level, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)and drinking. Thus, the prevalence of fatty liver was high among adult residents in Jinan. We suggest that in men,obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and drinking are highly associated with fatty liver.
Key Words: fatty liver, prevalence, risk factors, epidemiological survey
Study of JieDu Grannules on Proinflammatory Cytokine
in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Ai-Li Sun, Shi-Hong Chen, Hui-Ling Song, and Xiang-Hua Zhuang Department of Health, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250033 The aim was to observe the experimental effect of JieDu granules on proinflammatory cytokine in diabetes mellitus. Sixty-seven male healthy wister rats were fed with high-glucose and high-fat diet (add 10% cane sugar,15%lard stearin, 2% cholesterin and 0.25% cholalic acid into the common food) for 4 weeks. All rats were injected withSTZ (30 mg/kg) into peritoneal cavity after starved more than 8 h. Blood glucose were test with a pocket-size bloodglucose test meter after 72 h. Sixty rats were selected with the blood sugar higher than 16.7 mmol/l. The other 7rats were separated in another cage. All the rats were fed with high calory diet. All rat models were treated withGlibenclamide 3.87 mg/ml, 1 ml per day, until the end of the experiment. One week later, 36 rats models wererandomly divided into 3 groups: 12 rats in control group, treated with distilled water 4 ml everyday; 12 rats in Metformingroup, treated with Metformin 250 mg/kg (suspended into 4 ml distilled water) everyday; 12 rats in JieDu granulesgroup, treated with 4 ml JieDu granules everyday. All 3 groups were given different treatments for 8 weeks. Bloodglucose were tested every week. Followed aseptic technique strictly when got blood from the vena caudalis andtested blood glucose. At the end of the 1st week, after treating with Glibenclamide, and at the end of the experiment,blood sample was collected and centrifugalized. Triglyceride, cholesterol, blood sugar, HbA1c, TNF-α, IL-6, CPRwere measured and compared, and HOMA-IR were calculated. After the treatment, compared with control group,IL-6, TNF-α and CRP in JieDu granules group were significantly lower (P < 0.05); compared with control groupTNF-α, IL-6 were significantly lower (P < 0.05), but not CRP (P > 0.05); compared with metformin group, the levelof TNF-α more significantly lower in the JieDu grannules group (P < 0.05); compared with control group HOMA-IRin both JieDu grannules group and metformin group were significantly lower (P < 0.05); both JieDu grannulesand metformin have protective effects against diabetic microangiopathy. Inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, CRP)were significantly deceased and HOMA-IR were significantly lower in type 2 diabetes mellitus with JieDu granules.
Key Words: diabeties mellitus, JieDu granules, experiment study, proinflammatory cytokine
The Second Cross-Strait Joint Symposium on Adaptive Medicine and Adaptability Relationship between Expression of VEGFC and VEGFR-3
and Axillary Lymphnode Metastasis
Kai Zhang1, Jianli Wang2, Haidong Gao1, Jingzhong Sun1, and Rong Ma1 1Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University 2Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan This Study was to explore the relationship between lymphangiogenesis and axillary lymph nodes metastasis in breast cancer patients. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in “tumor-region”, “nearer-tumor region” and “farther-tumor region” of 62 breast cancer patients. The relationshipbetween the expression of VEGF-C,VEGFR-3 and axillary lymph nodes metastasis were studied in the 62 breastcancer patients. If the expression of VEGF-C in “tumor-region” was positive, there were some levels of VEGF-C ex-pression in “nearer-tumor region” and “farther-tumor region”. If the expression of VEGF-C in “tumor-region” wasnegative, there were also no VEGF-C expression in “nearer-tumor region” and “farther-tumor region” in the samepatient. The expression rate of VEGF-C was highest in “tumor-region”. From “tumor-region” to “nearer-tumor region”and to “farther-tumor region”, the tendency of VEGF-C expression rate was decreased. The expression rate ofVEGFR-3 in the three regions were rather lower than VEGF-C and no statistical difference among the three regionsin the expression rate of VEGFR-3 was found. The relationship between VEGF-C expression in “tumor-region”,“nearer-tumor region” and “farther-tumor region” and axillary lymph nodes metastasis was found. The relationshipbetween VEGFR-3 expression and axillary lymph nodes metastasis rate was just found in “nearer-tumor region”.
The overexpression of VEGF-C reflect the biological characteristic and behavior of breast cancer. If overexpressionof VEGF-C only in “tumor-region”, it had no relation with axillary lymph nodes metastasis rate. When overexpressionof VEGF-C was not only in “tumor-region” but also in “nearer-tumor region” and/or “farther-tumor region”, it hadrelation with higher axillary lymph nodes metastasis rate. Therefore, “nearer-tumor region” and “farther-tumor region”might have important role in axillary lymph nodes metastasis of breast cancer. The expression rate of VEGFR-3 inthe three regions was rather low. VEGFR-3 expression in “nearer-tumor region” had relation with axillary lymph nodesmetastasis rate. Therefore, the “nearer-tumor region” might be very important in axillary lymph nodes metastasis.
The overexpression of VEGF-C and its receptor VEGFR-3 in tumor and “nearer-tumor region” might be one of themechanisms of axillary lymph nodes metastasis in breast cancer.
Key Words: breast cancer, lymphatic metastasis, lymangiogenesis, nearer-tumor region, farther-tumor region,
Survey and Analysis of the Awareness, the Treatment and
the Standard Rate of T2DM in Health Clinic and
General Clinic
Department of Gerontology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 Survey existing circumstances of the awareness, the treatment and the standard rate of T2DM in health clinic and general clinic, compare similarities and differences of the “three rate” between the two clinics, analyse influencefactors, will provide basis for establishing effective diabetes management strategies in the future. Adopt questionnaireto survey 100 patients separately who visit our hospital from October to November in 2009 in the two clinics, includingbasic personal information, such as name, sex, age, educational level, occupation, etc.; measurement of bloodpressure, stature, weight, waistline, hipline, etc., calculation of BMI and WHR; inquiry of diabetes and family history,compliant behavior, drug therapy, dietary therapy, exercise therapy, diabetes self-monitoring, diabetes healtheducation, knowledge of diabetes, psychological balance, etc. Statistic treatment to calculate the awareness and thetreatment rate; collect the patients’ laboratory test results nearly one month, including glycemic index-FBG, P2hPG,HbA1c, lipid index-TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, statistic treatment was use to calculate the standard rate, analyse andsummary similarities and differences on management strategies of T2DM in health clinic and general clinic. Resultsshowed that: 1) The standard rate of glycemic index, lipid index, obesity index of T2DM patients in health care clinicgroup are higher than that in general clinic group. The standard rate of BP is nearly the same with general clinic group,and the awareness and the treatment rate of T2DM patients in health care clinic group are also higher than in generalclinic group. 2) Infiuence factors of the awareness and the treatment rate of T2DM patients including education, DMduration, not having received diabetes health education, economic pressure, out-patient category. 3) Infiuencefactors of the standard rate of FPG, P2hPG, HbA1c of T2DM patients: include sex, uncontrolled hyperlipidemia,failing ordered by their doctors, a lack of knowledges of drug therapy, insulin therapy. DM duration, having the abilityto afford the cost of treatment, uncontrolled hyperlipidemia, failing ordered by their doctors, a lack of knowledges ofdrug therapy, insulin therapy; having regular doctors, having the ability to afford the cost of treatment, having pressureof work and/or life, having not followed up, failing ordered by their doctors, a lack of knowledges of drug therapy,insulin therapy, out-patient category.
Key Words: type 2 diabetes mellitus, awareness rate, treatment rate, standard rate, standardized management
of diabetes, comprehensive treatment of diabetes Study on Female Sexual Function of Three Modes of
Delivery in Postpartum Period
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250033 This study is to investigate effects of three different delivery modes, including normal vaginal delivery (NVD), normal vaginal delivery with Episiotomy (NVD/epi), and caesarean section(C/S), on postpartum sexual function inprimi parous women at the third month, sixth month and ninth month after delivery. We also wish to understand statusof sexual health in postpartum period, to improve females’ quality of life after delivery, and to provide clinicalobservations. Women giving birth in Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at The Second Hospital of ShandongUniversity between January 2010 and June 2010 were selected. In this cross-sectional study, each female wasfollowed up by answering questionnaires respectively at the third, sixth, and the ninth month. In the third month afterdelivery, scores of dyspareunia, vaginal lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and FSFI total score of NVD/epi group weresignificantly lower (P < 0.05), and the FSD rate (68.09%) was significantly higher than NVD group and C/S group(P < 0.05). In the sixth month after delivery, scores of orgasm, sexual satisfaction, dyspareunia, and FSFI totalscore of NVD/epi group were significantly lower (P < 0.05), and the FSD rate (46.67%) was still the highest in threegroups (P < 0.05). In the ninth month after delivery, only score of dyspareunia was significantly lower in NVD/epigroup (P < 0.05), and no significant difference existed in both FSFI total score and FSD rate. Female sexual healthproblems in postpartum period are common. In the third and sixth month after delivery, sexual function of NVD/epigroup was significantly lower, and the FSD rate was significantly higher than NVD group and C/S group. Till the ninthmonth, the dyspareunia level of NVD/epi group was still the highest. Our investigation indicated that the integrity ofperineum is closely related to female postpartum sexual health. We are aware of the importance that female shealthin postpartum period, strengthen protecting the integrity of perineum reduce the occurrence of FSD.
Key Words: modes of delivery, puerperium, sexual function, FSFI, cross-sectional study
The Second Cross-Strait Joint Symposium on Adaptive Medicine and Adaptability Clinical Research of Noninvasive Cardiac Hemodynamics in
Middle-Aged and Old Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Fei Yu1, Bao-Ying Li1, Shan-Shan Shi1, Qian Wang1, Zhi-Mian Zhang2, and Hai-Qing Gao1 2Department of Health Examination Center, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 This study was to explore the characteristics of cardiac hemodynamics in middle-aged and old subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to discuss the sensitive indicators to determine the early heart disease by Lifegard ICGHemodynamic Monitor. Totally 218 individuals were divided into three groups included the health controls (n = 130),the patients with pre-diabetes (n = 23), and the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 65). The body mass index(BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting blood glucose (FPG), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), systolic bloodpressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) weremeasured on all subjects. Cardiac outpute (CO), cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), systemicvascular resistance index (SVRI), stroke volume (SV), stroke index (SI), thoracic fluid content (TFC), accelerationindex (ACI), left cardiac works index (LCWI), pre-ejection period (PEP), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), velocityindex (VI), contraction time ratio (STR) and heart rate (HR) were measured using Lifegard ICG HemodynamicMonitor. Compared with the healthy controls, there was significant difference in WHR, FPG, TC, SBP, DBP, PP, ACI,VI, PEP and STR between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) and normal subjects. Comparedwith the healthy controls, there was significant difference in the FPG, ACI and VI between patients with pre-diabetes(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) and normal subjects. Correlation analysis indicated that ACI related negatively with BMI, WHR,FPG, SBP, DBP, MAP and HR (P < 0.01); PEP related positively with BMI (P < 0.01); VI related negatively with BMI,WHR, FPG, SBP, DBP, MAP and HR (P < 0.01); STR related positively with BMI and WHR (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).
We concluded that cardiac hemodynamics impaired to varying degrees in diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes. BMIis the common risk factor on the reduction of these indicators. ACI and VI measurements are noninvasive andsensitive indicators of evaluating abnormalities of cardiac hemodynamics in diabetes mellitus.
Key Words: diabetes, noninvasive cardiac hemodynamics, body mass index
Elevated Expression of Metadherin Enhances Estrogen
Response and Tamoxifen Resistance in MCF-7
Breast Cancer Cells
Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 About two-thirds of human breast cancers express estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) by which estrogen plays an important role in cell proliferation and survival. Overexpression and hypersensitivity to estrogen have beenreported to promote resistance to one of the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), tamoxifen, which isclinically the first line treatment for breast cancer patients with ERα-positive breast cancer. Resistance to tamoxifenis a major problem in the clinical management of breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of tamoxifenresistance are largely unclear. MTDH (metadherin) is an oncogene demonstrated to promote tumor progression anddrug resistance, but there have been no reports about its roles in estrogen response or tamoxifen response. In thisstudy, we first show that MTDH can enhance estrogen response and induce resistance to tamoxifen in ERα-positivebreast cancer cells. We found that MTDH can enhance the expression of ERα and its regulated genes PR, cathepsinD, c-myc, cyclin D1, BCL2 to promote cell sensitivity to estrogen stimulation, which may contribute to tamoxifen-resistance. Then we tested the role of MTDH in sensitivity to tamoxifen and found MTDH can promote resistanceto tamoxifen and inhibit the apoptosis induced by tamoxifen. Besides the ERα-E2 pathway we also found AKT, HER2and ERK1/2 may play roles in the resistance induced by MTDH. Our study indicated that MTDH is a candidate markerto predict the clinical efficacy of tamoxifen and targeting MTDH could inhibit the E2-induced proliferation andovercome the resistance to tamoxifen in breast cancer cells.
Key Words: MTDH, breast cancer, estrogen, tamoxifen, Erα
Factor Analysis of Tai Chi Exercise on Physical Fitness in
College Students
1Institute of Physical Education, Shandong University 2Shandong Jian Zhu University, Jinan 250061 In this study, a total of 200 students were selected and divided into experimental and control groups, 100 people each. The subjects in experimental group went through nine weeks of tai chi training (450 min per week). The controlgroup maintained normal activities, without additional exercise training. Tai Chi training was performed two weeksbefore the fourth week, and the ninth week of the physical fitness test consists of the following 1,000 m run, sit-dimensional flexion, standing long jump, 50 m rope and ran six. Tai chi training obtained by testing is helpful toimprove the physical fitness of students, especially in the flexibility, muscular endurance and cardiovascularendurance, which has reached significant levels. Therefore, the students in colleges and universities who carry outtai chi exercise can improve their physical fitness. It is conducive to the promotion and implementation of Tai Chiin the university.
Key Words: tai chi exercise, college students, physical fitness, influence
Beneficial Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract
Combined with Atorvastatin on Carotid Atherosclerosis
Progression of Geriatrics in Clinical Use
Ai-Hong Cao1, 2, Jie Qiu1, 2, Ping Zhang1, 2, Xiang-Ju Liu1, 2, Lin Shen1, 2, and Hai-Qing Gao1, 2, * 1Department of Geriatrics, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 107 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 2Shandong Provincial Key laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics, 107 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 Atherosclerotic plaques indicate the occurrence of ischemia events and how to deal with it is a difficult task for clinical physicians. To observe the effect of the combination use of GSPE and atorvastatin on carotid atherosclerosisof geriatrics in clinical use and investigate the possible mechanism, a scientific basis for new treatments ofatherosclerosis was provided. Consecutive 122 hypercholesterolemic patients diagnosed with asymptomatic carotidartery plaques based on carotid ultrasonography were randomly assigned to group A (n = 63) or group B (n = 59).
Patients in group A received atorvastatin 20 mg/day, while the patients in group B received therapy of a combinationof both atorvastatin 10 mg/day and GSPE 400 mg/day. Carotid ultrasound examination and laboratory analysesincluded assessment of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were performedat baseline and 3, 6, 12 months during follow-up. Results showed that: (1) After treatment of 3 months, serum TC,TG and LDL-C level in both groups decreased significantly (P < 0.001), serum HDL-C level increased. The decreaseof serum TC, TG and LDL-C level in group B was more significantly than in group A, but there was no statisticallydifferent at the same time point for between-group comparison. Serum HDL-C level in group A was significantlydifferent from group B after 6 months (P < 0.05). (2) After treatment of 3 months, serum hs-CRP concentration ingroup A decreased 1.71 mg/L (P < 0.05), while serum hs-CRP concentration in group B decreased 3.55 mg/L (P <0.05). Significant difference of serum hs-CRP levels between the two groups appears after 6 months treatment(P < 0.05). (3) After treatment of 12 months, atorvastatin resulted in significant reduction in MMCIMT progression(5.1% decrease, P < 0.05) and plaque score (19.2% decrease, P < 0.05). While significant decrease of both MMCIMT(5.3% decrease, P < 0.05) and plaque score (28.0% decrease, P < 0.05) in group B appears after 6 months treatment.
Atorvastatin can inhibit the development of carotid intima-media thickness, reduce the carotid plaque and promotethe stabilization of carotid plaque, and as the treatment of prolonged, the combination of GSPE and atorvastatin madegreater clinical benefit.
Key Words: grape seed proanthocyanidin extract, atorvastatin, atherosclerosis, carotid plaque, geriatrics
The Second Cross-Strait Joint Symposium on Adaptive Medicine and Adaptability Analyzing Resting Myocardial Ischemia Using Heart Remote
Monitoring Techniques
Yu Zhang, Hai-Qing Gao, Yong-Liang Yi, Mei Yu, and Min Wei Department of Cadre Healthcare, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 To distinguish the two mechanisms of resting myocardial ischemia and to analyze the incidence of every mechanism and the incidence of resting myocardial ischemia in different AS populations, we select patients who havedone both the coronary arteriography or CTA and Holter or iHolter in the heart remote monitoring center (2009.1.1—2010.12.31) as the subjects. Consult the patients’ cases and reports of the Holter and iHolter. Analyze the incidenceof the resting myocardial ischemia in different AS populations and the incidence of every mechanism of the restingmyocardial ischemia. Studies showed that incidence of resting myocardial ischemia is more than 21.3% in patientswhose coronary arteriography results are positive or the CTA reports show that the coronary artery has moderate orsevere stenosis, while in patients whose coronary arteriography results are negative or the CTA reports show thatthe coronary artery has mild stenosis, the incidence is more than 58.3% (P < 0.05). Coronary artery spasm accountfor more than 73.3% of all the etiologies of the resting myocardial ischemia, while the other etiology only accountsfor less than 26.7% (P < 0.05). Results showed that: 1. The coronary arteriography can be used to distinguish thetwo mechanisms of the resting myocardial ischemia. 2. The coronary artery spasm makes the majority of themechanisms of resting myocardial ischemia. 3. The resting myocardial ischemia can more easily happen in patientswithout coronary artery disease, but whose coronary artery is narrow to some extent. 4. The heart remote monitoringtechniques are favorable to monitor resting myocardial ischemia.
Key Words: heart remote monitoring techniques, resting myocardial ischemia, coronary artery spasm, coronary
Clinical Research of Pulse Wave Velocity in Middle-Aged
Patients with Essential Hypertension
Shan-Shan Shi1, Bao-Ying Li1, Fei Yu1, Qian Wang1, Zhi-Mian Zhang2, and Hai-Qing Gao1 1Department of Gerontology, 2Department of Health Examination Center, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 To study the characteristic of PWV in middle-aged patients with essential hypertension, we analyzed the healthy check-up data, total 436 subjects, 40-87 years old, in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between Aug. andOct. 2008. We divided them into high blood pressure group (n = 262), the normal high-value group (n = 69) and thenormal group (n = 105), and to investigate the different PWV among them. Student’s t-test was used to compare thedifference between two groups. The comparisons among the three groups were conducted by analysis of variance.
Multivariate stepwise regression analysis method was used to do multivariate analysis including age heart rate, thehistory of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary history and history of stroke, systolic blood pressure and diastolicblood pressure and pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, and waist circumference, body mass index as inde-pendent variables, C-FPWV as dependent variable multivariate stepwise regression analysis. P < 0.05 was con-sidered as statistical significance. In elderly patients with hypertension, a normal blood pressure increases arterialstiffness, and arterial elasticity. With the increase of the pressure drop, CFPWV artery elasticity, increased obviously.
In simple hypertension patients, coronary heart disease and (or) 2 - diabetes complications were found. Inhypertension patients C-FPWV artery elasticity increased obviously. After multivariate regression analysis, we foundthat age, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, pulse, pressure, heart rate and the history ofhypertension are CFPWV factors.
Key Words: middle-aged, hypertension, pulse wave velocity

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