Microsoft word - hpas 2010 lr human performance ice & cold final.doc

A. Sillitoe1, D. Upcraft2, K. Rich3, M. LaRoche4, B.K. Røed5 and J.R. Huse6
1Human Element Specialist, Marine Product Development, Lloyd's Register, 71 Fenchurch Street, London, EC3M 4BS, UK, 2Ice and Cold Operations Business Manager, Marine Business Development, Lloyd’s Register, 71 Fenchurch Street, London, EC3M 4BS, UK, 3Director of Projects, Lloyd's Register Human Engineering, Shore House, 68 Westbury Hill, Bristol, BS9 3AA, UK, 4Business Development Manager, Toronto Port (Great Lakes & Atlantic Canada Operations), Lloyd's Register North America, 3050 Harvester Road, Suite 208, Burlington, ON, L7N 3J1, Canada, 5Principal Consultant, Scandpower AS, Rådmann Halmrasts vei 4, NO-1337 Sandvika, 6Vice President, Scandpower AS, P.O. Box 3, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway,
The number of voyages taking place though ice-covered seas is increasing. The safety of the ships and the lives of
those on board depend largely on how prepared and supported the crew are for the challenges of operating in these
harsh, cold-climate regions. Sources of hazard can include accidental immersion in cold water, freezing and non-
freezing cold injuries, high levels of ultraviolet light, slippery surfaces, falling ice, unusual day or night lengths, and
weather conditions affecting visibility and the sea state. This paper reviews literature and best practices to outline
many of the physical and cognitive risks to seafarers in conditions of extreme cold, including their personal safety
and their ability to control the vessel and its systems. The paper explains how hazards such as these can affect
seafarers’ performance and decision-making. It introduces methods for managing the resulting risks, including
procedural adaptations to manage exposure times, task allocation and the operability of the vessel, and design
adaptations to reduce or remove hazards to the people on board and the ways in which they can work.
KEY WORDS: Ice; cold temperature; personal protection; human performance; extreme conditions.
when living and working on board. Their safety, and IMO: International Maritime Organization their ability to operate the ship and carry out their ISM: International Safety Management Code tasks effectively and efficiently, depend on how SOLAS: International Convention for the Safety of prepared they are for the challenges of operating in this harsh environment, and what support they are given. The level of risk alters with seasonal climate 1. BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION
variations, but the minimum level of risk remains Changes in natural resource exploitation, the climate, world trade and the marine infrastructure are By tradition, most ships are designed to operate increasing current and future marine activity in cold safely in temperatures down to -10°C, providing that basic precautions are taken. In temperatures below this, with or without sea ice, thorough assessment is As an example, further exploration and transportation required of crew safety and operations, onboard is expected off the coasts of Alaska, Canada, equipment and fittings, and construction materials. Greenland and Russia as the Arctic is estimated to hold about 22% of the world’s remaining recoverable The need to assure safety and effectiveness for the hydrocarbon reserves [USGS, 2008]. Furthermore, growing trade in cold regions has inspired a rise in the Polar Regions have seen a significant increase in technology and innovation for ships [Lloyd’s Register, cruise ship traffic, with the number of cruise ships 2008]. Increased understanding and practical calling at ports in Greenland more than doubling in application of knowledge relating to operations and crewing is equally important, and this paper is intended to support advancement in this area. These changes mean that more voyages are taking place, for longer periods of the year, on more trade This paper will describe the hazards which may be routes and with a wider range of ship types, than has encountered when operating in cold climates, explain previously been the case. More seafarers are the risks that these present to the seafarers and their therefore being exposed to the associated hazards ship, and introduce potential solutions for managing these risks by safeguarding human performance. Ice on or close beneath the sea surface presents a 2. HAZARDS AND PERFORMANCE-INFLUENCING
risk to the safety of the ship and to its voyage schedule. Ice conditions can change in a short period of time, even within half an hour. A build-up of ice Operating ships in cold climates presents many extreme and often unique hazards. Recognising some of these hazards can be reasonably intuitive, For the navigators and bridge watchkeepers, the but for others more careful assessment and requirement for constant vigilance and short-notice consideration of the potential for harm is required. passage plan alterations imposes high cognitive demands. They may have to take the ship into 2.1 ICE ACCRETION ON THE SHIP’S STRUCTURE uncharted waters to circumnavigate ice floes. Ice accretion from cold water freezing upon contact with cold steel affects the stability and loading of the ship. Sea ice suppresses wave action so spray icing At the high Polar latitudes, mean winter temperatures does not occur in heavy ice conditions, but freezing of -20°C can be expected, and in some areas spray and atmospheric icing from rain, hail and snow extreme temperatures down to -50°C are not unusual. can occur even when no sea ice is present. Spray from heavy seas in the high latitudes can cause several tonnes of ice to build up in a short period of time. Using water on deck can cause problems that Humans have adapted physically and behaviourally would not be faced in warmer climates, including for to life in widely differing climates, but the range of body temperatures within which we remain healthy is narrow. Environmental temperatures or disease raise The principal danger of the additional weight of ice or lower our core body temperature through the above the centre of gravity is one of stability. The physics of heat transfer, such as conduction and bridge team face a difficult and unpredictable task evaporation. In extremely cold environments the when manoeuvring a ship with reduced stability. steep temperature gradient between our body core and the outside world increases the risk of heat loss. From a bridge situated aft, the extent of icing on the forecastle may not be clearly visible. Dispatching Extreme or extended body heat loss can lead to crew members to inspect the icing or to manually hypothermia. This is an abnormally low body remove it by walking over the deck places them in a temperature, which can be fatal. It affects brain and cardiac function at 35°C and becomes life-threatening at 32°C, below which point loss of consciousness is likely. Freezing cold injuries, known as frostbite, can develop if bodily fluids freeze within the tissue. If Heavy icing on the exposed decks can hinder access followed by gangrene then digits or limbs can be lost to equipment and its operation. This includes [BOHS, 1996]. Unprepared seafarers are also at risk equipment needed for the voyage or cargo handling, of debilitating non-freezing cold injuries such as frost as well as emergency equipment including lifesaving The effect of wind passing the body reduces body Snow and ice underfoot, on ladders and on handrails temperature through convection. Without proper increases the likelihood of slips, trips and falls. This is protection, wind chill can severely affect performance particularly dangerous when black ice forms, which and safety by drastically reducing the exposure time needed for frostbite to start. Figure 1 illustrates this effect for different air temperatures [Transport Ice which builds up on high structures above walkways or working areas presents an additional If bare skin comes into contact with cold metal structures or equipment it may adhere to the surface and be torn off. Freezing or non-freezing injuries can The stresses of a cold environment also place high Air temperature (°C)
demands on attention capacity. Because a larger proportion of the brain’s processing capability therefore has to be used to take in sensory information, the conditions can become a constant distraction from the task in hand [BOHS, 2009]. In relatively mild hypothermia, with a core body temperature of around 34°C, cognitive effects such as amnesia can be seen. However, it is likely that some Wind speed (km/h)
aspects of performance will be impaired long before this relatively low core temperature is reached. One meta-analysis of 22 studies found that Figure 1: Number of minutes to expected start of
performance on a variety of cognitive tasks was frostbite in different wind chill situations
proportionally more adversely affected by cold than by heat. As Table 2 shows, the overall mean Table 1: Key to range of risk categories for
decrement from a neutral or room temperature was exposure times before frostbite starts
larger as temperature reduced than when it increased. This effect is particularly pronounced for Exposure before
Risk zone
tasks involving reasoning, learning and memory. frostbite starts
However, for reaction time and mathematical processing tasks, cold conditions were associated with a small improvement in performance [Pilcher,
Table 2: Mean performance differences

associated with hot and cold temperature
exposure in a meta-analysis of various cognitive

Mean % difference
compared to neutral
Even the act of breathing can present difficulty and risk, as the low humidity of cold air can cause the Cognitive tasks
respiratory passages to narrow. Known as bronchospasm, this reduces the volume of air a person breathes, especially upon expiration, and thus their performance and comfort [Tipton, 2006]. The body’s efforts to reduce temperature loss in cold tissues by vasoconstriction influence the work that those tissues can support. Manual dexterity declines substantially when the skin temperature on the hands falls to 12-16°C. Tactile sensitivity decreases even It has been suggested that despite the cold conditions diverting some attention from a task, the remaining attentional capacity can in fact be more highly focused. Therefore relatively simple tasks can see a slight improvement as sufficient attention remains The body’s natural counterbalances to cold available and is more focused, whereas more conditions, such as shivering, use high levels of complex tasks see a reduction as insufficient energy. If this is not replaced then performance will attentional capability can be applied to the task quickly degrade. Because of this, extremely low temperatures can adversely affect psychological processes as well as physical capability. This includes cognitive tasks such as decision-making and Survival times in icy water can be very short. Water conducts heat more than twenty times faster than air [IMO, 2006a] and wetness reduces the insulation of and trip hazards and increase the risk of freezing normal clothing [BOHS, 1996]. Reactions, muscle coordination and physical strength to support one’s own escape or rescue will be severely reduced. In the first 3 to 5 minutes of immersion, there is a Cold climate regions tend to be in the higher latitudes, gasp reflex followed by severe hyperventilation and where cyclonic weather can bring extreme wind and muscle spasms. The heart rate and blood pressure wave conditions. Rough sea states make controlling will rise rapidly as a first response. Death can follow and manoeuvring the ship more demanding and less quickly if this causes cardiac arrest. For someone predictable. They also increase the likelihood of slips, who survives initial immersion, the following 5 to 30 trips and falls, motion induced fatigue [Powell, minutes may bring an inability to swim due to cooling Crossland and Rich, 1999], motion sickness [Colwell, of the muscles and nervous system, which can cause 2009], dropped objects and shifting cargo or drowning. Survivors of these two stages who remain equipment. Interference with personal activities such in the water may then succumb to hypothermia as sleeping and eating or work activities such as [Tipton and Brooks, 2008; Transport Canada, 2003]. watchkeeping and maintenance are likely. Without protective clothing and survival aids, survival in cold water for any period of time is unlikely. Rapid rescue is essential, but survivors who are recovered Localised and short-lived low pressure weather from the sea face yet another potential difficulty – systems can occur in the high latitudes. Often known post-rescue collapse. This is the result of a as Arctic lows or Polar lows, they are difficult to catastrophic drop in blood pressure following predict, occur suddenly, and can be extremely violent. recovery from the water. Up to 20% of immersion They present a substantial stability risk to smaller deaths occur shortly after rescue or within a few vessels. For larger ships, there may be a need to stop A number of studies have been undertaken estimating survival times in cold water [such as Tikuissis, 1997]. Most need to be treated cautiously Depending on the season, the high Polar latitudes due to methodological concerns [Tipton and Brooks, have extremes of daylight and darkness. In the height 2008]. Most survival models exclude the risk of of summer the sun does not set below the horizon, drowning during the early stages of immersion and and in the depths of winter it does not rise above the may therefore be misleading [Golden and Tipton, horizon. For much of the intervening periods there is a large imbalance in the light and darkness which can be detrimental to human health and performance. In the early stages of immersion in cold water there can be a significant loss of manual dexterity. This can Without traditional light cues, the body’s normal lead to great difficulty in operating lifesaving circadian rhythm can be disrupted with resulting equipment or an inability to board a life raft or problems for task performance and personal health. otherwise assist in one’s own rescue. Manual People can lose track of time, and maintaining dexterity, grip strength and speed of movement can regularity and quality of sleep and meals requires a decrease by as much as 60-80% after immersion deliberate effort. Inadequate nutrition and insufficient quality and quantity of sleep and rest contribute to fatigue.  For watchkeepers whose biorhythms are As a rule of thumb, 50% of lightly clothed people will already challenged by 24-hour watchkeeping cycles, drown: one hour after immersion in water at 5°C; two this is an additional burden [Palinkas, 2001]. hours at 10°C; or six hours or less at 15°C [Golden, In the dark winter months, some crew members may be especially susceptible to a drop in their morale. The darkness also makes ice observation more difficult, and visual perception cues for judging Low air temperatures encourage fog to form. Snow, distance to other ships or structures can be reduced. hail and rain also reduce visibility. These conditions make it difficult to keep a navigational watch for other ships and to observe the ice conditions. Freezing fog and precipitation settling on cold surfaces present slip The remoteness and infrequency of ship traffic mean that in some areas of the Arctic for example, there is At its freshest, snow can reflect up to 90% of the a relative lack of good navigational charts, sunlight which falls on it [NSIDC, 2010b]. The communication systems and navigational aids [Arctic resulting glare can temporarily obstruct vision, and at Council, 2009]. Navigation therefore requires its most extreme permanent snow blindness can additional cognitive effort from the seafarers. result from inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva. By increasing contrast, glare coming through windows can also hinder viewing of electronic display screens which display vital operational information to the seafarers. Frosting, misting or dirt independently in ice, ships face high levels of noise will also reduce contrast on displays or dials, leading and vibration when the hull and ice are in contact. This can affect the required volume and the clarity of verbal communications on board, especially in the Summer months at high latitudes bring high levels of below-deck areas. Face-to-face, telephone and radio ultraviolet light. This intensifies the potential for conversations can be hindered, as well as public eyesight damage, and increases the risk of sunburn address system announcements for routine and to any exposed skin, despite the low air As well as hindering communication, engineers unaccustomed to working in ice conditions can face high levels of stress as a result of the unusual and In addition to the psychological effects of sustained unpredictable noises. Impact noises arise when hard darkness as described above, the feelings of isolation ice impacts the side of the ship, and the shaft line can can be worse for seafarers in the most remote ice vibrate when ice impacts the propeller blades. areas than for other seafarers. This is because of the increased difficulty of arranging communication to or When noise and vibration affect the accommodation from families at home, and the reduction or absence areas, rest and sleep quality can degrade. Coupled of opportunities for shore leave along the route. with this, continuous noise and vibration can increase the likelihood and severity of fatigue symptoms. Low morale, defined here as reduced self-motivation or self-confidence and increased negative emotions 3. PERFORMANCE AND RISK MANAGEMENT
including pessimism, can adversely affect productivity MEASURES
and teamwork during a voyage. [Palinkas, 2001] Seafarers who have experienced continuous negative Section 2 has outlined the major factors which feelings may lose the enthusiasm to take up future present risks to human performance and safety at contracts in cold conditions. The subsequent sea. Working in cold conditions, and living on board, reduction in retention rates over time would mean that can be detrimental to cognitive and physical performance in a variety of ways. These must be understood by the operating company, the crew, ship designers and equipment manufacturers before people are exposed to these conditions. This section Ships trading in these remote and harsh conditions outlines measures which can be taken to manage the are required to be much more self-sufficient than effects of cold conditions on human performance. those on more temperate routes. Delivering additional food, clothing or spare parts is a substantial logistical challenge with high costs and long timescales. In order to provide a structure for describing, focusing Resources for search and rescue, medical assistance and informing risk control measures, this paper uses or evacuation and pollution clean-up are frequently the principle of contrasting “fitting the person to the unavailable, at least within the timescale which many job” with “fitting the job to the person”. All methods for emergencies would require. These considerations managing human performance and safety can place extra pressure on the seafarers involved to broadly be described within one of these categories. ensure safe operations. They also necessitate However, in any complex system the overall additional capability and redundancy from the ship’s combination of solutions will be a mixture of both. 3.1 (a) “Fitting the Person to the Job” including ice removal and extra watchkeeping duties, will usually require more people to be carried on “Fitting the person to the job” refers to methods of ensuring that people are available who can operate the equipment, systems, and procedures in a safe The recently adopted “Guidelines for Ships Operating and effective manner. This benefits job performance, in Polar Waters” from IMO introduce the position of protection of the asset, and protection of the an “ice navigator”, who is trained and qualified for the individual. These measures are often classified as specialist skills of directing the movement of a ship in human resources methods within the marine industry ice-covered waters. Manning should be planned such that continuous monitoring of the conditions by an ice navigator is available when a ship is underway in the 3.1 (b) “Fitting the Job to the Person” presence of ice [IMO, 2010]. Some national regulations also include a similar requirement. “Fitting the job to the person” refers to methods of ensuring that the people who are assigned particular tasks and duties are provided with the appropriate tools, equipment and procedures for their effective Knowledge and skills particular to cold climate and efficient performance. It also incorporates regions need to be developed through training or organisational and environmental factors. These practical experience. Some of this can be developed measures are often classified as human factors or on the job through schemes such as mentoring, but user-centred measures within the marine industry much of it must be learned through structured induction before being exposed to the harsh conditions. For example, cold water survival 3.2 HUMAN RESOURCES CONTROL MEASURES – techniques should be taught and practised before seafarers join a ship. Personnel should also be trained to manage their own performance and safety by teaching them to recognise the early symptoms of conditions such as freezing or non-freezing cold As with most shipping sectors, cold climate crews are injuries and hypothermia, so that they can be increasingly recruited from tropical regions, especially Asia. Unlike seafarers from areas such as Scandinavia, Canada or Russia, a natural Reporting of all potential cold injuries should be understanding based on experience of working in a actively encouraged, and medical staff must be cold environment cannot be assumed. Some ethnic trained in their prevention, diagnosis and groups may also be more susceptible to cold injury management. An effective and practical method for cold injury prevention is the “buddy system”. This involves crew members being taught how to avoid Rigorous pre-employment physical and medical cold injury themselves as well as how to look for assessments are required, as many activities require signs of cold injury in others and bring it to their greater endurance and strength in cold climates than attention. They can also be trained to monitor clothing they would elsewhere. People with existing discipline, work schedules and correct use of thermoregulatory or cardiovascular disorders or a history of cold injury would be at greatly increased risk of repeated cold injury, serious illness or death if Deck and engineering officers with extensive they worked in the coldest climates [BOHS, 1996]. experience in temperate regions will still require additional knowledge and skills before operating ships in cold conditions. Complacency and untested assumptions can be very dangerous if they lead to an In conditions of extreme cold, especially when inappropriately low respect for the environment and working out on deck, human physical and cognitive performance will degrade quickly. As a result, exposure times should be limited, crews rotated more Tasks such as navigating through ice, drawing up frequently, and longer periods allowed for rest and watchkeeping and work rosters, and maintaining and recovery (fatigue can be a contributory factor in the operating the main and auxiliary machinery require development of cold injuries). Higher manning may specialist knowledge and skills. Even experience of therefore be required. Furthermore, the additional sailing in a cold region such as the Baltic cannot be tasks required for operating in these regions, assumed to provide all the training required for the more extreme conditions which will be found in the temperature or clothing may therefore be required to highest latitudes. Simulators can provide valuable help regulate the effects of this [Wood, 2004]. training for bridge and engine room staff in order to gain some theoretical experience of operating in ice Designing the accommodation to avoid placing bunks or bathrooms adjacent to the outer bulkheads will provide additional protection from the cold. The Research on incidents in the Baltic during the winter location of the accommodation block, and especially of 2002-2003 reported that conditions in the the cabins, should also take account of likely sources preceding 15 years had been “quite easy for ice of noise and vibration, especially the engine room navigation”. The average maximum ice extent was half of the long-term average, with the implication that experience of navigating ships in the most extreme Ships should be designed or refitted to provide conditions can be lost or not built up in new recruits adequate space to change, dry and store the bulky protective clothing (see Section 3.3g). The changing facilities should be located within the warmth of the Safety drills are a vital part of training, but the accommodation area, but not too far from external conditions necessitate special planning. For example, doors, to reduce the effects of personnel dripping the consequences of accidental immersion during a lifeboat drill would be especially severe. Planning drills for relatively sheltered conditions helps to Attention must be paid to the water piping and heating systems, to prevent supply problems or damage from freezing, and to ensure that the heating Training should extend to the shore management as system is adequate for the conditions. This is well as the onboard crew. In order to best support especially important for the cabin washrooms and the their ships, the shore technical support team needs to galley, where a reliable supply of clean and hot water understand the often unique challenges which are is vital for maintaining hygiene standards. encountered during day-to-day operations in Providing good recreation facilities on board is important. Exercise facilities allow the crew to maintain fitness, and shared facilities such as film screenings or table tennis tables encourage social During the dark months, or periods of long nights, In the most remote cold regions, crew members can consideration should be given to providing lighting spend extended periods on board without the which replicates natural light [Ellis, 2009]. During the opportunity for shore leave. Even when a port call is light months, and for work patterns which include required and allows time to leave the ship, it will not sleeping during the day, the cabin windows must be offer respite from the prevailing climate. It is therefore able to be fully blacked out through well-fitting blinds especially important for the ship to provide a or screens. These measures help to avoid the natural comfortable and pleasant environment for living as circadian cues of light and dark preventing adequate sleep during breaks or the necessary alertness during work. In order to affect the body’s timing mechanism, The accommodation spaces must be heated at all light must be over 1000 lux and provided for a times. This will typically be designed to maintain an minimum of one hour [USCG, 2003]. 1000 lux is a inside temperature of +20°C at the lowest expected luminance level comparable to being outdoors on an outside temperature. Insulation and ventilation will be overcast day, or indoors near a window on a bright required which is sufficient to minimise heat loss while preventing condensation build-up on windows and inner bulkheads. This must also ensure an appropriate balance of air humidity and treatment of airborne pathogens, which can become concentrated To support the bridge watchkeeping team in fulfilling their duties, the ship’s propulsion and steering systems must provide sufficient power and As well as influencing alertness, the innate human manoeuvrability to enable timely course alterations in circadian rhythm has points at which body response to the changing ice conditions, and hazards temperature drops. Adjustment in the room complete protection of exposed areas through Officers in the conning position, and the supporting appropriate clothing including face masks would bridge and engine teams, must be aware of the prevent its effects being experienced [ISO, 2008]. effects on stability of ice accumulation. A closed circuit television system with heated camera housings Deck equipment design and positioning should take can help to assess the build-up of ice without placing account of the conditions to which it will be exposed crew members in danger. Increased weight due to ice and of the restrictions which will be imposed on the accumulation can also increase the propeller and rudder immersion depth, with resulting effects on the The bulkiness of protective clothing should be considered when designing hatches and doorways, or Due to the need for self-sufficiency, the ship’s developing procedures for work to be done when engines will need to be configured to operate at the wearing it. Some tasks may not be possible, such as expected speeds without incurring damage beyond operating small dials when wearing thick gloves or normal wear-and-tear, along with corresponding mittens. Others may require more time, more people, planning of fuel bunkering. These technical considerations allow the crew to plan their activities based on informed understanding of the maintenance Alternative methods of providing information or reminders to support crew members in their work may be required. Warning signs and printed instructions Surface freezing of ballast water can occur if the are traditionally a convenient method of providing tanks are located against the outer hull. The crew will information at the point of need to people involved in occasionally need to open the hatches to visually an activity or exposed to a hazard. However, these inspect for this. The ballast air vents can also freeze, can not be relied upon if they may be obscured by creating a damaging vacuum. Keeping ice removed, snow and ice build-up. Alternatives, with varying by hand or by heating, ensures that the option for degrees of reliability and time or cost demands, regulating the stability of the ship through ballast include: moving signs to protected areas; requiring water transfer is always available in normal and discussions such as toolbox talks about likely risks emergency situations. The anchor release before people enter hazardous areas; increasing mechanism can also freeze, so heating may be training or simulation to reduce the need for required to ensure that it is available to secure the procedural reminders; and allocating functions to ship and prevent uncontrolled drifting in the event of An example of this is using technology such as trace To manage the demands on the crew, the route heating or simply protective covers to prevent ice should be planned wherever possible to avoid sailing accumulation, rather than requiring people to remove when sea ice would not be visible, such as in it. Ice removal is labour-intensive and can be darkness, heavy swell or fog [IMO, 2008]. dangerous to both the worker and the underlying equipment. Removal measures can include the use of steam, hot water or hot air, manual tools such as mallets, shovels or scrapers, or de-icing compounds Working routines should minimise the time in which personnel are exposed to low temperatures. Sheltered and/or heated locations should be provided Engineers need to be prepared to monitor and for personnel working for extended periods on the maintain the cooling water available for the main and open deck, especially if maintaining static watch or auxiliary engines. If the inlets or pipes freeze or lookout duties. Shivering is a natural bodily response become blocked, the engines will overheat very to generate internal warmth, but at its most severe it quickly and the ship will lose power for its onboard can prevent useful physical or mental work from and propulsion systems [IMO, 1989]. Preparatory and reactive action on this imposes ongoing cognitive As Figure 1 shows, wind chill is a factor of air temperature and wind speed. If there is a need to be on deck, then taking steps to limit the effect of wind speed enables a longer exposure time and higher A thorough planned maintenance system should be in productivity rate for the personnel. In particular, as place to ensure that substantial tasks are carried out wind chill is related to the reaction of exposed skin, before entering cold climate regions, or embarking on long voyages within them. Any remaining routine jobs integrity of the ship’s hull and propulsion systems, should be planned with the understanding that the and its stability. For passenger ships, this has been expertise and materials must be available on board. recognised by IMO with amendments to SOLAS to Bringing in parts and tools, or a superintendent or implement “safe return to port” regulations for ships riding crew, by helicopter or small boat transfer simply will not be an option in remote areas. The engineers must also plan for the potential difficulties in restarting Equally, the remoteness of most cold climate regions equipment or engines in the cold conditions after a means that external search and rescue or medical evacuation resources will not be available. Specialist icebreakers are available in certain regions, but Using trace heating and salt can prevent the freezing sometimes only seasonally. In Polar regions, their of equipment, and therefore eliminate or minimise the arrival time will usually be measured in days rather need for personnel to remove ice from it. However, than hours, which precludes their use for immediate these can encourage faster corrosion which will rescue or for assistance in a developing emergency. require additional maintenance. A considered systems view of risk management solutions must To support this self-reliance, the ship must be therefore be taken in order to manage the demands equipped with lifesaving appliances and fire fighting equipment in accordance with the requirements of SOLAS and thorough, context-specific risk The bridge team will need substantial support from Fire fighting equipment on deck must be protected their ship and its equipment to keep an effective with canvas covers or trace heating. Before entering navigational watch and to control the ship. Attention a cold region, the crew should drain water and foam to usability and good human-machine interfaces will lines to prevent expansion damage from freezing. benefit the efficiency and reliability of decision-making The loading and stability risks of water used for fire [ISO, 1999-2008]. Appropriate allocation of function fighting freezing must be kept in mind. Fire response between the human and technological parts of the plans should also take account of the reduced ship system can reduce the cognitive and physical effectiveness of fire fighting personnel in cold load on people, leaving additional capacity available conditions. As they get wet they will need to retreat to to respond to emergencies or to perform other tasks. a sheltered and heated room very quickly. Before returning to the open areas they will need to change The bridge windows will need to be heated to prevent freezing, both on the outside and inside due to condensation. Double or triple glazing can provide Lifeboats can be difficult to lower in ice conditions as extra protection. The cleaning system should be winches or davits can freeze and ice can obstruct the protected from freezing [Transport Canada, 2007]. sea surface [Lloyd's Register, 2008; Bercha, 2006]. They should be of the enclosed type and fitted with Effective radar systems help the bridge team to internal heating. Ideally contents such as drinking detect ice formations. When dark conditions are water, batteries and fire extinguishers should be expected, the ship should have extra searchlights and removed and stored in a warm area near the boats deck lighting to support both navigation watchkeeping until they are needed. Food rations should be high in energy, and quantities should take account of the likely wait for rescue resources to reach the scene. Bridge display screens and controls should be adjustable for contrast, to minimise dazzle from The IMO “Guidelines for Ships Operating in Polar instruments in low light levels and to counteract the Waters” highlight the need for personal survival kits effects of glare in high light levels [IMO, 2004]. and group survival kits to cover at least 110% of the Preservation of night vision for bridge watchkeepers people onboard [IMO, 2010]. IMO’s International Life- Saving Appliance Code, as mandated by SOLAS, details minimum requirements for survival suits [IMO, 2006b]. Thorough risk assessment should be performed to determine whether their insulation would In remote cold climate areas, the adage that “the ship be sufficient in the expected context of their use. is its best lifeboat” is especially true. The most effective protective measures for the crew, Safe access routes to emergency evacuation passengers and cargo are those which support the equipment and escape routes should be kept clear of ice and snow, as should pilot boarding routes when • Grip strength – forces that can be exerted by a applicable. This may require heating and gratings to reduce the slipperiness of walkways, as well as trace • Tactile sensitivity – an important correlate with heating of door seals and recessing of doorways to ensure that they can be opened when required. Clothing and footwear should fit well, as constrictive Given the short expected dexterity, consciousness clothing or boots can encourage cold injuries by and survival times as described in Section 2.5, restricting circulation to the fingers and toes. procedures for man overboard recovery must be fast and well rehearsed. Searchlights and closed-circuit Tinted glasses or goggles should be provided to television cameras will greatly assist this task, but protect against the possibility of snow blindness. only if they are kept operable and not allowed to Netting, heating, manual removal and protective headgear can all reduce the risk from ice falling from Familiarity of the crew with helicopter operations overhead structures. Using trace heating and open should also be assured, as in the event of an grills for flooring can prevent ice build-up. emergency this is the most likely method of medical evacuation if the ship is within range of rescue A high-energy, nutritionally balanced diet and good hydration are important. Appetite and food intake can decrease in the cold despite energy requirements increasing [US Army, undated]. An alcohol policy may be required as the adverse diuretic and circulatory Loss of body heat occurs through conduction, effects of drinking it are exacerbated by the cold, as convection, radiation and evaporation. It is important they are for excessive caffeine [BOHS, 1996]. The to remain dry as water conducts heat much faster effects of alcohol can increase the risk of frostbite and than air. This includes avoiding sweating as this can hypothermia, and despite the commonly held belief freeze on any exposed skin, and wet clothing affords alcohol has no known preventative or management lower insulation than dry. Multiple layers of clothing benefits for cold injury [US Army, undated]. rather than a single body suit enable layers to be removed as necessary when carrying out manual Personal health awareness is important to enable personnel to minimise further harm if danger signs become apparent. Training and awareness-raising Warm clothing should include insulated boots, gloves should address both physical and mental health, to and head coverings. Designing and selecting help people meet their responsibilities in protecting personal protective equipment usually involves a their own health and that of the people around them. trade-off between protection and operability. For As an example, hypothermia can develop gradually example, producing effective insulation for individual even to a severe stage without the sufferer being fingers is difficult, so mittens provide greater warmth aware of its onset [BOHS, 1996]. Minor injuries such than gloves. Offset against this is the reduction in the as cuts and abrasions must be treated promptly. digital dexterity available to the wearer [BOHS, 1996]. Another trade-off applies to footwear, between preventing water ingress and allowing sweat to wick away from the feet through socks and evaporate. If The risks from people using or misusing the ship’s boots are waterproof then moisture can build up inside, which increases the risk of cold injury. management system, required under ISM, provides Personal foot care discipline and training are one method, but risks to efficiency and effectiveness Adopting a user-centred approach for a glove-jacket A human-centred approach to the development of ensemble would force the designer to consider operating instructions and procedures will help to ensure that they can be relied upon to support timely • Hand and finger dexterity – making well and appropriate decisions in routine and emergency coordinated and skilful arm, hand and finger • Hand steadiness – the ability to make precise arm and hand movements that minimise speed 4. CONCLUSIONS
4. British Occupational Hygiene Society, 1996, ‘Technical Guide No.12: The Thermal Environment Performing work effectively and efficiently on a ship in conditions of extreme cold, while ensuring personal 5. Transport Canada, 2005, ‘Winter Navigation on the and vessel safety, presents many and varied River and Gulf of St. Lawrence – Practical Notebook challenges. This paper has presented an overview of for Marine Engineering and Deck Officers’, TP the types of hazards, their potential effects, and some of the methods which can be applied to manage the 6. Tipton, C., 2006, ‘American College of Sports Medicine’s Advanced Exercise Physiology’, Lippincott Given the nature of ships as simultaneous working 7. British Occupational Hygiene Society, 2009, and living spaces, some of the risks which have been ‘Technical Guide No.12: The Thermal Environment presented are immediate in their manifestation and (Second Edition): Addendum 13 Years On.’ influence, and others build up and have their effects 8. Pilcher, J., Nadler, E. and Buss, C., 2002, ‘Effects over a longer period. As a result, risk assessment and performance management requires a thorough and Performance: A Meta-analytic Review’, Ergonomics, informed overview of the ship as a system. It is vital to take proper account of the role of people in this 9. Hartley, K. and McCabe, J., 2001, ‘The Effects of system, including the varied physical and Cold on Human Cognitive Performance – Implications psychological factors which can influence their for Design’, Proceedings of the SELF-ACE 2001 Conference – Ergonomics for Changing Work, vol.4, With levels of shipping activity increasing in cold sea 10. International Maritime Organization, 2006a, areas, more people are being exposed to the risks ‘Guide for Cold Water Survival’, MSC.1/Circ.1185 and required to perform in the harsh conditions. 11. Tipton, M. and Brooks, C., 2008, ‘The Dangers of Precautions and improvements such as those Sudden Immersion in Cold Water’, NATO Research outlined in this paper support seafarers’ performance and Technology Organisation Proceedings of HFM- 152 Technical Course on ‘Survival at Sea for Mariners, Aviators and Search and Rescue DISCLAIMER
Personnel’, ISBN 978-92-837-0084-5 12. Transport Canada, 2003, ‘Survival in Cold Lloyd's Register, its affiliates and subsidiaries and Waters: Staying Alive’, TP13822E, 01/2003 their respective officers, employees or agents are, 13. Tikuissis, P., 1997, ‘Prediction of Survival Times individually and collectively, referred to in this clause at Sea Based on Observed Body Cooling Rates’, as the 'Lloyd's Register Group'. The Lloyd's Register Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 68, Group assumes no responsibility and shall not be liable to any person for any loss, damage or expense 14. Golden, F., 1996, ‘Survival at Sea: The Nature of caused by reliance on the information or advice in this the Medical Threat’, in proceedings of the RINA document or howsoever provided, unless that person Escape, Evacuation and Rescue Conference, London has signed a contract with the relevant Lloyd's 15. Golden, F. and Tipton, M., 2002, ‘Essentials of Register Group entity for the provision of this Sea Survival’, USA, Human Kinetics, ISBN 13: 978-0- information or advice and in that case any responsibility or liability is exclusively on the terms 16. Powell, W., Crossland, P., and Rich, K.J., 1999, and conditions set out in that contract. ‘An overview of ship motion and human performance research’, Contemporary Ergonomics, Taylor and REFERENCES
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Critical Psychology and the Ideology of Individualism David J. Nightingale (formerly Bolton Institute UK) and John Cromby (Loughborough University UK) Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy 2001: Vol 1,2 p.117-128 Number in square brackets [p.x] refer to page numbers in the published version Contact: John Cromby Dept. of Human Sciences Loughborough University


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