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Meta Patterns—A Means For Capturing the
Essentials of Reusable Object-Oriented Design
C. Doppler Laboratory for Software Engineering
Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz, Austria
Voice: ++43 70-2468-9431; Fax: ++43 70-2468-9430
There is an undeniable demand to capture already proven and
matured object-oriented design so that building reusable object-oriented
software does not always have to start from scratch. The term design pattern
emerged as buzzword that is associated as a means to meet that goal. Already
existing approaches such as the catalog of design patterns of Erich Gamma
et al. [5, 6] and Peter Coad’s object-oriented patterns  differ in the applied
notation as well as the way of abstracting from specific application
This paper proposes a domain-independent terminology and notation
we call meta patterns. It is demonstrated how meta patterns constitute aminimal means to capture reusable object-oriented design.
Design patterns, object-oriented design, object-oriented soft-
ware development, application frameworks, class libraries, reusability
One of the principal goals of object-oriented software development is to improve thereusability of software components. Increased reusability of software is considered ascrucial technical precondition to improve the overall software quality and reduceproduction and maintenance costs.
Reuse of Single Components.
Conventional function-/procedure libraries can
be viewed as sets of small building blocks that might be compared to elemenatry
components such as screws and bolts in the real world. Libraries that offer more
complex functions and procedures based on the ‘call-back’ principle (for example,
some libraries for GUI programming belong to that category) turned out to be often
too inflexible and too difficult to use.
Module-oriented languages such as Ada and Modula-2 allow to express the concept
of Abstract Data Types
(ADTs). Unfortunatley, it is almost impossible to constructsuch modules in a way so that they meet all future requirements no matter in whichproject the modules will be reused. Typically, a small ‘delta’ has to be changed so thata module can be reused in software projects other than the one it was originallydesigned for.
Such variants of the original module are not compatible any more. Furthermore,
chances are high that these delta changes in the source code imply errors.
As a consequence, module-oriented programming could not lead to the awaited
breakthrough in software reusability. Only pretty simple modular components such aslinked lists, sets, hash tables, etc. are reusable in numerous projects without modifi-cations.
Since object-oriented languages support that programming by difference
problem is alleviated: ADTs can often be adapted without touching the source code ofthe original ADT. The adapted ADTs are compatible to the original one.
Concepts offered by object-oriented programming languages are used in many
projects for the sole purpose of producing reusable single
Reuse of Architectures.
The concepts inheritance and dynamic binding are
sufficient to construct so-called frameworks
, that is, reusable semi-finished
architectures for various application domains. Such frameworks mean a real
breakthrough in software reusability: not only single building blocks but whole
software (sub-)systems including their design can be reused.
Though most of the matured framworks exist for the GUI domain (such as
MacApp , and ET++ [4, 9, 10]) the framework concept can be applied to anyapplication domain. The term application framework is often used for frameworkswhich constitute a generic application for a domain area. We use the term frameworkfor both application framework and ‘small’ framework that might consist of a fewcomponents and be part of an application framework. In cases where a distinction isnecessary the term application framework is explicitly used.
The Role of Design Patterns
As the design pattern approach in the realm of object-oriented software developmentjust emerged recently there is no consensus on the term ‘design pattern’. Variousdesign pattern approaches differ in their purpose. In general, we might discern betweendesign pattern approaches that focus on the design of single components or a smallgroup of components ignoring the framework concept. Other approaches, such as theone of Erich Gamma et al. [5, 6] and the meta pattern approach presented in this paperpursue the goal of supporting the design of frameworks.
Design Patterns and Frameworks.
Experts in the field of object-oriented
technology have intuitively recommended that programmers who want to learn how to
develop frameworks should start learning basic object-oriented concepts first and then
proceed to take a close look at various frameworks. The major disadvantage of that
approach is the enormous effort required. Since the first step of this ‘method’ of
learning is to use a framework, programmers have to learn all the details of a
framework. Often this involves learning an additional programming language. Poor
documentation of available frameworks makes the second step—studying
implementation details—even more painful and time consuming. Abstracting design
which have been obscured by many implementation details requires an in-
depth look at a framework. Sometimes it becomes even impossible to understand
particular design decisions without any hints.
The main purpose of the framework-centered design pattern approaches is to
describe the design of a framework and its individual classes without revealing theimplementation details. Such abstract design descriptions constitute an indispensablevehicle for communicating matured designs in an efficient way. As a result, designpatterns can help to
• understand the specific implementation details of a framework, as design
patterns constitute a ‘road-map’ for doing this
• construct new frameworks which incorporate matured and proven designs
A pioneering work was accomplished by Erich Gamma in his doctoral thesis which describes design patterns in the ET++ application framework [9, 10]. The workpresented in this paper has been inspired by the OOPSLA’91 - OOPSLA’93workshops and Erich Gamma’s design pattern descriptions.
Design Patterns and OOAD Methodologies.
State-of-the-art OOAD method-
ologies such as the Object Model Technique (OMT) , Booch’s method  and the
Responsibility-Driven-Approach  are limited in that the development and
adaptation of frameworks are not primarily addressed. This is true for all of the
numerous OOAD methodologies. Though there are significant differences in the
applied notation, the methodologies themselves are not radically different. Rumbaugh
et al.  express this in the following way: ‘All of the object-oriented methodologies,
including ours, have much in common, and should be contrasted more with non-
object-oriented methodologies than with each other.’
OOAD methodologies assist in the development of a well-structured object-
oriented system. Frameworks have to evolve from this initial framework design.
Design patterns can support this architecture evolution. In that sense, OOADmethodologies are complemented by design pattern approaches.
Hot Spots of Frameworks
Application frameworks consist of ready-to-use and semi-finished building blocks Theoverall architecture (= the composition and interaction of building blocks) ispredefined as well. Producing specific applications usually means to adjust buildingblocks to specific needs by overriding some methods in subclasses.
In general, an application framework standardizes applications for a specific
domain. At the same time some aspects cannot be anticipated. These parts of anapplication framework have to be generic so that they can easily be adapted to specificneeds. Figure 1 shows schematically this property of an application framework withthe flexible parts in gray color.
. An application framework with flexible hot spots
The difficulty of ‘good’ object-oriented design is to identify the hot spots
of anapplication framework, i.e., those aspects of an application domain that have to bekept flexible. Remember how Wirfs-Brock and Johnson outline this problem: ‘Goodframeworks are usually the result of many design iterations and a lot of hard work. .
Lack of generality in a framework shows up when it is used to build applications, soits weaknesses cannot be found until after it is designed and reused’ . We considera framework to have the quality attribute ‘well designed’ if it provides adequate hotspots for adaptations.
Primarily, domain-specific knowledge is required
to find those hot spots. Only
domain analysis can help to acquire this knowledge. Design patterns are useless duringthis domain analysis. Patterns can only outline how to design and implementframeworks that adhere to these hot spots, that is, frameworks that are adaptable whererequired.
Framework-centered design pattern approaches, such as the design pattern catalog [5,6] attempt to pick out framework examples
that are not too domain-specific. Suchframeworks are presented as examples of good object-oriented design that can beapplied in the development of other frameworks. We use the term framework exampledesign patterns for those design patterns. Framework example design patterns mainlydiffer in the semantic aspect of the hot spot that is kept flexible.
Since experienced object-oriented designers collected these framework example
design patterns we consider these catalogs as useful means to construct newframeworks. Furthermore, framework example design patterns typically includeimplementation hints. Nevertheless, we think that a more advanced abstraction ishelpful, for example, in order to actively support the design pattern idea in the realmof tools.
We introduce the term meta patterns
for a set of design patterns that describes how
to construct frameworks independent of a specific domain. Actually, it is prettystraight-forward to construct frameworks by combining the basic object-orientedconcepts. Thus these meta patterns turn out to be an elegant and powerful approachthat can be applied to categorize and describe any framework example design patternon a meta-level
. So meta patterns do not replace state-of-the-art design patternapproaches but complement them.
The Object Model Notation proposed by Rumbaugh et al.  is used in order to
Class/Object Interface and Interaction Meta Patterns
So-called template and hook methods
represent the meta patterns required to designframeworks consisting of single classes or groups of classes together with theirinteractions. The terms ‘template method’ and ‘hook method’ are commonly used byvarious authors such as [5, 12].
Note that the term ‘template method’ or simply ‘template’ must not be mixed up
with the C++ construct ‘template’ which has a completely different meaning.
Furthermore, we assume that all methods are defined as dynamically bound ones.
The narrow inheritance interface principle
 as fundamental design guideline is
strongly related to the distinction between hook and template methods. Generalconsiderations and specific examples illustrate how to combine these two metapatterns in order to develop well designed frameworks.
Flexibility Within One Class.
Let us consider an example (see Figure 2)
assuming that a class B offers three methods M1(), M2() and M3(). In this example
M1() constitutes the template method based on the hook methods M2() and M3(). Formethod M2() only the method interface (name and parameters) can be defined, not animplementation. The term abstract method
is often used in such a case. Classes thatcontain abstract methods are termed abstract classes. This is expressed graphically bywriting the method name(s) and class name in italic style
. Method M3() is assumed toprovide a meaningful default implementation.
In the figures we use the C++ notation ClassName:: in order to express that a
. A template method calling its hook methods
Subclass B1 adapts the template method M1() by overriding M2(). Thus the hot spotM2() is filled. The template method M1() of class B is adapted without changing itssource code as illustrated in Figure 3.
. Adaptation of template method M1() by overriding B::M2()
Of course, method M3() can also be overridden in a subclass of B in order to adapt thishot spot of template method M1().
Flexibility Across Class Borders.
In general, methods of a class B establish acontract
—subclasses can only modify method implementations or add new methods.
Either methods of class B itself (as shown in the example above) or of any other class
can be based on the contract of B (‘based on the contract of B’ means that variables of
static type B are used and messages corresponding to the contract of B are sent to these
B objects). The following example illustrates the case that another class A is based on
the contract of B. Due to polymorphism, other components of the application
framework that are based on B, work with instances of any subclass of B. What
actually happens at run-time depends on the object’s run-time type, i.e., how the
particular hook methods are implemented in the corresponding subclasses of B. Theterm abstract coupling is used to express that.
. . .
if (.) bRef->M1();. . .
. Abstract coupling based on template and hook methods
In the example in Figure 4 objects of class A maintain a reference to objects of classB by means of the instance variable bRef.
Ideally, MethodOfA() is adapted to specific needs by only overriding B::M2() in a
subclass of B. The instance variable bRef then has to refer to the appropriate instanceof a subclass of B.
It depends on the point of view what constitutes a template method and a hook
method. A hook method is elementary compared to the template method in which theparticular hook method is used. In another context, the template method can become ahook method of another template method. For example, MethodOfA() is a templatemethod using M1() as hook method. In the realm of class B method M1() is a templatemethod.
Template methods call at least one other method. Hook methods can be abstract
methods, regular methods that call no other methods or again template methods.
Narrow Inheritance Interface Principle.
Weinand et al.  explain the
purpose of the narrow inheritance interface principle employed in frameworks:
‘Behavior that is spread over several methods in a class should be based on a minimal
set of dynamically bound methods which have to be overridden. This allows clients
deriving subclasses from an existing class to override just a few methods in order to
adapt its behavior. Not adhering to this narrow inheritance interface principle often
means that too many methods have to be overridden, resulting in ugly and bulky
For example, the template method B::M1() (see Figure 2 and Figure 3) adheres to
the narrow inheritance principle if clients that derive a subclass from B only have tooverride B::M2(), and maybe also B::M3() in order to adjust the behavior of B::M1().
The same should be true for adjusting A::MethodOfA().
Unfortunateley, designing classes with narrow inheritance interfaces comprises
conflicting goals: a good design of class interfaces in the realm of frameworks shouldfind the optimum balance between flexibility and the effort to adapt classes. A classthat provides powerful template methods which are only based on a few hook methodsimplies a minimal adaptation effort: behavior is adapted by overriding these hook
methods in subclasses. But this could sacrifice the flexibility of a class. If the hookmethods are not sufficient to modify the template method’s behavior, the classbecomes inflexible, implying that the whole template method has to be overridden.
Thus template methods have the potential of reducing adaptation effort withoutsacrificing flexibility. They add the danger of making classes too rigid, which againdrastically increases the adaptation effort.
As a consequence, classes in a mature framework should contain powerful, yet
flexible template methods. Clients ideally only have to override abstract hookmethods in order to adapt a framework to their specific needs. The design of thecorresponding class interfaces typically requires many iterations (caused by the usageof classes in specific situations). During such iterations template methods appear tobe too rigid so that more hook methods have to be integrated. Of course, it is alsopossible that the usage of classes provides insights how to define additional templatemethods, if clients have to implement similar control flow again and again.
It seems impossible to describe general guidelines for getting template methods
right the first time. As already mentioned in the beginning, class interface designdepends very much on the various domains for which frameworks are developed.
Examples can only illustrate how to do it right in specific situations. Above all, it isimportant to get the basic idea of template methods (they essentially implement theframework concept) and to see the conflicting goals of class interface design whichresult from the narrow inheritance interface principle.
The structure of template methods sometimes depends on the way objects are
composed. This issue is discussed in 4.3.
Class/Object Composition Meta Patterns
Sometimes, white spots (template methods) and gray spots (hook methods) are unifiedin one class. In many situations it is more adequate to put white spots and hot spotsinto separate classes. In that case, the class that contains the hook method(s) can beconsidered as hook class
of the class that contains the corresponding templatemethod(s). We call the class which contains the template method(s) template class
. Inother words, a hook class parameterizes
the corresponding template class.
Analogous to template and hook methods it depends on the particular situation
which class is a template and which one a hook class.
The following attributes are relevant in order to describe the way how the
corresponding objects of a template class and a hook class can be composed:
• Can an object of a template class refer to exactly one other object or to any
• Is the template class a descendant of the hook class?
(Details why these attributes are relevant are discussed in .) In order to allowmessage sending between objects of template and hook classes, there has to exist areference relationship between the corresponding objects. Though there are severalways to establish such a reference relationship in the realm of composition metapatterns we consider only the most important one, i.e., the establishment of areference relationship via an instance variable.
Based on a combination of the composition attribute values the composition meta
patterns depicted in Figure 5 result.
The Unification meta pattern represents the special case that template and hook
classes are unified in one class. For example, class B in Figure 2 is based on the
Unification meta pattern with template method and corresponding hook methods inone class.
. Composition meta patterns
Impact of Composition Meta Patterns on Template Methods
All composition meta patterns except for the 1:1 Connection and the Unificationpattern imply a typical structure of the template methods. The various structures oftemplate methods result directly from the composition attributes. We pick out the 1:NConnection pattern in order to illustrate this.
In the recursive connection patterns template methods and hook methods have
typically the same name, for example, TH(). The template method T::TH() overridesthe hook method H::TH(). Figure 6 shows the structure of TH() in the 1:N RecursiveConnection pattern.
. . .for each
hookObject: <H *> in
. Structure of template methods in the 1:N Recursive Connection pattern
Since hookObject is of static type ‘pointer to H’, objects of any subclass of H, thatis, also recursively T objects can be handled. This allows to build up directed graphsof T objects and H objects. Figure 7 shows an example of such a graph.
Note that leaves of the tree can also be T objects: T objects may refer to zero or
more H objects. On the other hand, H objects can never be (sub)roots of the tree.
. Tree-hierarchy of T objects and H objects
What is the purpose of the template method in the realm of the 1:N RecursiveConnection pattern?
Due to the structure of the template method shown in Figure 6 messages are
automatically forwarded along the objects in a directed graph. In general, a T objectcan be viewed as a place holder for all objects following that T object in the directedgraph. Instead of sending the message TH to all these objects it is sufficient to sendthe message to the particular T object. This message is then automatically forwardedto the other objects that are placed ‘behind’ that T object in the directed graph.
Due to this forwarding property of typical template methods in recursive
connection patterns a hierachy of objects built by means of the 1:N RecursiveConnection pattern can be treated as a single object.
The structure of the other composition meta patterns and guidelines when to
choose them are discussed in detail in . Composition meta patterns especially differin the offered degree of flexibility of the hot spots. For example, choosing theUnification meta pattern implies the following: in order to change the templatemethod by providing a different hook method a subclass of the unified template-hookclass TH has to be defined. Thus changes of the template method cannot occurdynamically at runtime.
More flexibility is provided if template and hook classes are separated. This means
that the behavior of a T object, i.e., its template method, can be changed byassociating a different H object with the T object. Creating H objects and assigningreferences to T objects can be done at runtime.
Application of Meta Patterns
Design pattern catalogs list framework examples
, i.e., describe the design of specificframeworks on an abstraction level higher than the underlying programming language.
Since the examples are carefully chosen so that they are not too domain-specific these
framework example design patterns can be reused in other frameworks. However, theyprovide no means to capture the design independent of a more or less specificframework example.
Meta patterns presented in this paper are suited for the design documentation of
any (application) framework. Below we outline the principal idea how meta patternscan be ‘attached’ to frameworks. In this way meta patterns express how the requiredflexibility—represented by the hot spots—is gained in a particular framework. Thesedesign hints are often necessary in order to adapt frameworks. Programmers whodevelop new frameworks might benefit from studying the design of existingframeworks and applying it to frameworks under development.
We exemplify the attachement of meta patterns to framework examples for the
1:N Recursive Connection meta pattern and the 1:1 Connection meta pattern.
1:N Recursive Connection Meta Pattern.
The 1:N Recursive Connection
pattern is, for example, applied in a small framework consisting of the classes Folder
and Item. A Folder object can manage any number of Item objects. Figure 8
illustrates by means of arrows how the components of the 1:N Recursive Connection
meta pattern correspond to the classes and methods of this small framework.
1:N Recursive Connection
. . .
. Attaching the 1:N Recursive Connection meta pattern to a sample framework
The semantic aspect of the hot spot in that sample framework is the way Item objectscalculate their size.
Due to the characteristics of the 1:N Recursive Connection pattern Folder objects
can be treated as single Item objects so that hierarchies can be composed. Requestssuch as GetSizeInBytes are automatically forwarded within an object hierarchy(assuming that the template method GetSizeInBytes adheres to the typical structure oftemplate methods in the 1:N Recursive Connection pattern). Furthermore, thebehavior that is kept flexible by means of this pattern, that is, the size calculation,can be adapted at runtime—Folder objects calculate their size correctly if the containeditems are changed.
1:1 Connection Meta Pattern.
For example, in the domain of reservation
systems the initial hot-spot analysis
might reveal that the rate calculation has to
become one of the hot spots of an application framework for that domain. If the way
how rental rates are calculated for a rental item has to be kept flexible the 1:1
Connection meta pattern could be chosen in the framework design as shown in Figure
1:1 Connection Meta Pattern
. . .
.= calculator->CalcRate(this);. . .
. Attaching the 1:1 Connection meta pattern to a sample framework
So reservation systems built by adapting that framework have to specify the ratecalculation in a subclass of RateCalculator. For example, objects of a classHotelRoom (as subclass of RentalItem) in a hotel reservation system will require adifferent RateCalculator object than instances of a class Vehicle in a rental carreservation system. Due to the characteristics of the 1:1 Connection meta pattern, therate calculation behavior can be switched at runtime by coupling a RentalItem objectwith various RateCalculator objects—one at a time.
Summarizing Remarks and Outlook
The seven composition meta patterns repeatedly occur in frameworks. Each frameworkuses, of course, specific names for the template and hook classes and thecorresponding methods, depending on the semantics of the hot spots and the whitespots. The core characteristics of the composition meta patterns are independent oftheir particular application.
Thus, a hypertext design browser could be based on the meta pattern descriptions
to provide a means to browse through numerous examples where a composition metapattern is combined with domain-specific template and hook methods.
The fact that myriads of meta pattern annotations
are possible in (application)
frameworks might be considered as disadvantage: almost each method calls othermethods and thus becomes a template method that is based on hook methods. Metapatterns could be attached to all calls where a particular method is the template methodand the invoked methods are hook methods. Persons that know a framework wellenough, especially the developers of a framework can select those aspects that shouldbe put into a meta pattern browser.
Meta patterns are useful when they are attached to already matured frameworks. It
does not make sense to define meta pattern browsers for frameworks that are in theirearly development stages, i.e., where it is still not clear whether template and hookclasses are defined and implemented according to the needs of the framework domain.
Meta pattern browsers for matured (application) frameworks can be viewed as
advanced design pattern catalogs. Some aspects of a specific framework might bepretty domain-independent so that this design can be applied in the development ofnew frameworks. In these cases meta pattern browsers serve the same purpose asdesign pattern catalogs. Actually design pattern catalogs can be viewed as carefullychosen subsets of the design examples that can be captured and categorized in metapattern browsers.
In addition to design pattern catalogs meta pattern browsers can instrument any
domain-specific framework and document its design. The aspect that meta patternbrowsers allow an efficient design documentation of frameworks can help in adaptingthe hot spots of a framework to specific needs.
Future research based on a prototype implementation of a meta pattern browser
will reveal the suitability of a design documentation based on meta patterns for theadaptation and development of frameworks.
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T i m b e r & W o o d P r o d u c t s : P r e s e r v a t i v e s , B i n d e r s , F i x i n g Preservatives in Timber Products W hil e a com prehensi ve revi ew i s beyond the scope of thi s docum ent, a wi de range of treatm ents i s avai l abl e, with varyi ng l evel s of human and envi ronm ental toxi city. Very toxi c chemi cal s have histori call y been i ntroduced i nto our ho