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APA Format–6th Edition
–The American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely accepted in the social
sciences and other fields, such as education, business, and nursing. The APA citation format
requires parenthetical citations within the text rather than endnotes or footnotes. Citations in the
text provide brief information, usual y the name of the author and the date of publication, to lead the
reader to the source of information in the reference list at the end of the paper.
NOTE: Although the examples in this guide are shown in single space, APA
style requires double spacing throughout (e.g. text, references, etc.)
APA RULES FOR THE REFERENCES PAGE
– The fol owing sections show some of the more
NOTE: All citations must be in the Hanging Indent Format with the first line flush to
the left margin and all other lines indented.
JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS IN PRINT FORMAT
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.
Title of Journal, xx, xxx-xxx.
NOTE: The journal title and the volume number are in italics. Issue numbers are not
required if the journal is continuously paged. If paged individually, the issue number
is required and is in regular type in parentheses adjacent to the volume number.
Williams, J. H. (2008). Employee engagement: Improving participation in
safety. Professional Safety, 53
Two to Seven Authors [List all authors]
Keller, T. E., Cusick, G. R., & Courtney, M. E. (2007). Approaching the
transition to adulthood: Distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81
Eight or More Authors [List the first six authors, … and the last author]
Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J.-Y., Coatsworth, D.,
Lengua, L.,.Griffin, W. A. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68,
Mathews, J., Berrett, D., & Brillman, D. (2005, May 16). Other winning
equations. Newsweek, 145
Newspaper Article with No Author and Discontinuous Pages
Generic Prozac debuts. (2001, August 3). The Washington Post,
pp. E1, E4.
BOOKS, CHAPTERS IN BOOKS, REPORTS, ETC.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Alexie, S. (1992). The business of fancydancing: Stories and poems.
Corporate Author with an Edition and Published by the Corporate Author
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical
manual of mental disorders
(4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary
(31st ed.). (2007). Philadelphia,
Chapter in a Book
Booth-LaForce, C., & Kerns, K. A. (2009). Child-parent attachment
relationships, peer relationships, and peer-group functioning. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups
(pp. 490-507). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Shyyan, V., Thurlow, M., & Liu, K. (2005). Student perceptions of
instructional strategies: Voices of English language learners with disabilities.
Minneapolis, MN: National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota. Retrieved from the ERIC database.(ED495903)
ONLINE JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS
General Format - Databases
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.
Name of Journal, xx, xxx-xxx. doi:xxxxxxxxxx
Article Retrieved from an Online Database
NOTE: Use the article’s DOI (Digital Object Identifier), the unique code given
by the publisher to a specific article.
Senior, B., & Swailes, S. (2007). Inside management teams: Developing a
teamwork survey instrument. British Journal of Management, 18,
NOTE: Use the journal’s home page URL (or web address) if there is no DOI.
This may require a web search to locate the journal’s home page. There is no
period at the end of web address. Break a long URL before the punctuation.
Koo, D. J., Chitwoode, D. D., & Sanchez, J. (2008). Violent victimization
and the routine activities/lifestyle of active drug users. Journal of Drug Issues, 38,
1105-1137. Retrieved from http://www2 .criminology.fsu.edu/~jdi/
Article from an Online Magazine
Lodewijkx, H. F. M. (2001, May 23). Individual-group continuity in
cooperation and competition under varying communication conditions. Current Issues in Social Psychology, 6
(12), 166-182. Retrieved from http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.6.12.htm
OTHER ONLINE RESOURCES
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from web address
Online Report from a Nongovernmental Organization
Kenney, G. M., Cook, A., & Pelletier, J. (2009). Prospects for reducing
uninsured rates among children: How much can premium assistance programs help?
Retrieved from Urban Institute website: http:// www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=411823
Online Report with No Author Identified and No Date
GVU's 10th WWW user survey.
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www
Web Sites in Parenthetical Citations:
To cite an entire Web site (but not a specific document
within the site), it is sufficient to give the URL of the site in the text. No entry in the reference list
is needed. Example:
Kidpsych is an excellent website for young children (http:// www.kidpsych.org).
REFERENCE CITATIONS IN TEXT
– APA utilizes a system of brief referencing in the text of a
paper, whether one is paraphrasing or providing a direct quotation from another author’s work.
Citations in the text usual y consist of the name of the author(s) and the year of publication. The
page number is added when utilizing a direct quotation.
Indirect Quotation with Parenthetical Citation
Libraries historically highly value intellectual freedom and patron confidentiality (LaRue, 2007).
Indirect Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative
LaRue (2007) identified intellectual freedom and patron confidentiality as two key values held historically by libraries.
Direct Quotation with Parenthetical Citation
Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological" (Gould & Brown, 1991, p. 14).
Direct Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative
Gould and Brown (1991) explained that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological”(p. 14).
CITING SECONDARY SOURCES --
When citing in the text a work discussed in a secondary
source, give both the primary and the secondary sources. In the example below, the study by
Seidenberg and McClel and was mentioned in an article by Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Hal er.
Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993) provided a glimpse into the world
In the references page, you would cite the secondary source you read not the original study.
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models
of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100,
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APPENDIX 1 EXAMPLES OF PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICATION AS OF 1988* *This list is not necessarily complete, and thefield is constantly changing. New medicationsconditions may be shown to have psychotropicproperties, and listed psychotropics may bewithdrawn from the market or be shown to beineffective. Some medications may be usefulin several of the categories listed. In addition,Also referred