• Conjuncture:
• Adhocracy:
The actual balance of unevenly developed social and politi- The term was coined by Alvin Toffler. According to him, this cal forces in a society at a particular moment is referred to system would replace bureaucracy in which several tran- sient project teams or task forces would do the work which • Counter Factual:
would be dissolved after completion of the work or realloted A proposition which states that what would have happened other tasks. This would provide dynamism.
had something not been the case. It is often claimed that • Ageism:
to make any sociological proposition meaningful and test- The term was first employed by Dr. R.B. Butler, director of able, there must be corresponding counter factual proposi- American Institute of Ageing, in 1968, it refers to negative tion, e.g. to argue that Industrial Revolution has led to de- stereotype of early individuals, which prejudicially describes cline of joint family means one must have idea of what would them as senile, rigid in their attitudes and psychologically have happened to the family had there not been an Indus- and socially dependent. It has become a political issue with the greying of populations in western countries. ‘New age- • Cybernetics:
ism’ refers to intergenerational conflicts where elderly are The term was used by Wiener and later by Parsons. It is condemned for being takers and not givers.
related to self maintenance and self control of systems • Agelicism:
It is the social position represented by Durkhiem. It says • Dependency Theory:
that social phenomenon have an independent reality and This can be understood as a critical response to the laissez- cannot be reduced to or explained in merely individual terms.
faire model of international trade and economic develop- • Aggregates:
ment which can be traced back to Adam Smith’s (1776) It refers to coming together of people who are close to each explanation of the economic benefits of division of labour.
other physically but lack any organisation or lasting pattern Dependency theory was advanced by P. Baran (1957), who argued that economic development of industrial societies • Ambilateral:
in the West rested on the expropriation of an economic It refers to kinship system in which one is free to identify to surplus from overseas societies. The Third World countries which parental kin group he or she will become attached.
are under developed because of their reliance on export • Annales School:
oriented primary production. The theory was further elabo- An influential group of French social historians. It includes rated by A.G. Frank (1969), who analysed underdevelop- ment in terms of global network of exploitation between • Anne Sociologist:
metropolis and satellite societies. Dependency Theory has It was edited by E. Durkhiem and has been described as a a close affinity with the World System Theory later devel- sociological laboratory than a journal, since it provided the principal publishing outlet of the research of the early • Deschooling:
Durkhiemian school. It was certainly a major institutional This is the proposition that the formal .educational system factor in the dominance of Durkhiemian sociology over com- not only excludes certain groups but also, in emphasising formal, abstract ” knowledge, underrates the importance of • Anti-Psychiatry:
life experiences. Originally developed to apply to Third World An intellectual movement of the late 1950’s and 1960’s which Societies, the idea has been extended to developed soci- was critical of the theories and theurapeutic treatments of eties in order to promote Jhe organisation of informal edu- cation systems which build on the learner’s previous ‘knowl- • Cephalic Index:
It is a measurement of head type used by physical anthro- • Dialogic:
pologists to classify races and subraces of human beings.
A term coined by M. Bakhtin to describe cultural texts such To get cephalic index maximum head width is divided by as novels, films or plays which are made up of several dis- maximum head length and multiplied by 100. Thus the courses or systems of meaning that interact or conflict.
broader the head the more is cephalic index.
• Differential Gratification:
• Class Imagery:
The term is used to describe a type of behaviour in which Different people percieve class structure in different ways sacrifices are made in present in expectation of future. It is also a precondition for accumulation of capital in early stages reality of class unequality, people may have different im- ages or models of this reality. These images influence • Filiation:
peoples’ political and social attitudes and behaviour. Imag- The relationship of child to parent without regard to societal ery was important in the third quarter of twentieth century in rules of descent or membership in kinship groups. A dis- British Sociology. E. Bolt (1957) distinguished between tinction between descent and filiation occurs when mem- bers of a society practise unilateral descent.
• Clinical Sociology:
• Game Theory:
The phrase was first used by Louis Wirth (1931) who ob- Its a component of Rational Choice Theory of crime and it served the employment of sociologists in clinics which in- extends the theory of rational individual action to situations cluded psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers.
of interdependence or social interaction, i.e., when two or These clinics were primarily concerned with behavioural prob- more individuals do not act independently but interact and lems of children but anticipated them to deal with wide range are mutually dependent. Game Theory seeks to explain social action and interaction in situation of strategic inter- dependencies in which individuals are enmeshed and to • Miscegenation:
predict their actions. It permits mathematical modelling of The mating of people of two socially recognised races.
possible and likely choices in the situations with common • Neo Positivism:
characteristics (including the structure of game, the num- It is a methodological approach in sociology where social ber of players and whether there are zero-sum or non zero- research is based on procedures of physical sciences, sum outcomes). It assumes that ‘all players’ in a ‘game’ emphasising the study of overt behaviour and use of opera- (an interaction) will normally act rationally to promote their tional concepts and quantitative mathematical technique.
• Oriental Despotism:
• Ghetto:
The term was popularised by Karl Willfogel to describe the Although this term is commonly applied to the Jewish quar- political structure of hydraulic societies, i.e., societies ters of pre war European cities, in sociology it refers to whose environment and climate necessesiates the man- agement of water works through a state controlled bureau- • Hawaiian System:
In this system, all persons in the same generation are clas- • Post Structuralism:
sified in one group, with a distinction between the sexes. It Is a form of analysis, primarily found in literary works of is also known as generation system of kinship.
French Philosopher Jacques Derrida. It is often opposed to • Hermeneutics:
structuralism. The fundamental idea is that we cannot com- This is the theory and method of interpreting meaningful prehend reality without the invention of language. This human action. The subject got developed with the work of prioritises the study of language - or texts. Texts can be Dilthey who argued that there is a marked difference be- understood only in relation to other texts, not in relation to tween the study of nature and the study of human action, an external reality against which they can be tested or which, being expression of ‘lived experience’, requires a measured. Post structuralism adopted the position of anti- special method of analysis. Mannhiem also advanced simi- humanism, that is, it criticised the residual humanism of lar arguments. He said that individual cultural manifesta- social theory which privileged speech over writing. Radical tions can be understood by seeing them as a part of larger version of post structuralism also argue that sociology is world view. Hemeneutics has formed a part of general cri- no longer feasible as a discipline, because it is based on tique of positivism in sociology, however, the difficulty of hermeunetic analysis has always been to validate interpre- • Revitalisation Movement:
The term was defined by Anthony F.C. Wallace and .it is a • Idiographic and Nomothetic:
deliberate, conscious and organised effort by members of Idiographic study is the study of human behaviour through a society to construct a more satisfying culture, in other analysis of individual cases, while Nomothetic is concerned words, a special kind of culture change phenomenon.
with general propositions. It finds general laws. This dis- • Patrimonialism:
tinction was made by Wilhem Windleband.
The term was introduced by Max Weber. It is a form of • Kindred:
traditional political domination in which a royal household It is a-type of consangunal kin group which is based on
exercises arbitrary power through bureaucratic apparatus.
bilateral descent and is loosely organised and vaguely
In this system administration and political force are under the direct, personal control of the ruler. Support to patrimo- • Labour Aristocracy:
nial power is provided, not by forces recruited from a Is that stratum of manual working class which are privileged landowning aristocracy, but by slaves, conscripts and mer- and establish better conditions for themselves by trade union cenaries. Weber regarded patrimonialism as- strength or position or by capitualising on scarce skills.
i) Politically unstable because it is subject to court intrigue • Legitimisation Crisis:
The term was introduced by Habermas, who argues that all ii) A barrier to development of rational capitalism.
social systems have to have some mechanism that gives Patrimonialism was thus an aspect of Weber’s explanation them legitimacy. Modern capitalist societies require exten- of the absence of capitalist development in oriental societ- sive stage planning of the economic democracy, which for ies in which personal rulership was dominant.
Habermas, boils down to periodic voting by citizens who • Sick Role:
are otherwise politically inert. This inertia or civil privatism The concept was first outlined by L.J. Henderson (1935) is necessary for the system to survive. However this and then elaborated by Parsons (1951).
civilprivatism is undermined by various state processes that interferes in citizen’s private lives thus generating a poten- i) the incumbent is exempted from normal social - respon- • Life World:
ii) the sick person is not blamed for being sick.
The term refers to everday world as it is experienced by iii)the person is expected to seek out competent profes- ordinary men and women. For phenomenological sociol- sional help, since the illness is socially undesirable.
ogy, the life world is the ‘paramount reality’ and the main iv)the incumbent of a sick role is expected to comply with object of sociological enquiry. Its chief characteristic is that the regimen prescribed by a competent physician. Since it is unproblematic and is taken for granted and is therefore doctors in Western society have professional monopoly, contrasted with the world of scientist and sociologist in which they are principal legitimators of sick role.
natural objects and social interactions are not taken forgranted. The term is used by Habermas to refer to every-day world, which is informed by practical considerations.
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
• The movement of objects towards greater attraction, in The theory of scientific socialism, as given by Marx and Engels, explains the origin, historical development and de- T Veblen (1857-1929)
mise of capitalist economic system. It relies heavily on He was influenced by Spencer’s idea of evolution by natural philosophy of Hegel, particularly on Hegel’s thesis that selection. He advocated the ‘Theory of Leisure Class’ and change has to be explained in terms of contradictions.
Major works’
• The Economic and Philosophical Manuscript (1844) a) Theory of technological evolutions based on (i) Savagery Vitfred Pareto (1848-1923)
His sociological work The Mind and Society’ (1916) attacked political liberalism while supporting the free market economy.
• Das Capital 1(1867) Das Capital II Das Capital III He is also known for his theory on the rise and fall of gov- • The Capitalist Economic Formation (1857-58) • The First Indian War of Independence (1857-58) His major contributions:
Marx’s major contribution to social thought:
• ‘Circulation of Elites’- According to him, there are two types of elites: (a) Governing Elites (b) Non Governing Elites Max Weber (1864-1920)
Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936)
He produced extensive studies in comparative sociology.
Tonnies advocated or classified societies into two types: He was greatly influenced by Marx and criticised him in his 1. Gemienschaft: Population in such kind of society is works. His ‘Methodology of the Social Sciences’ remains a immobile and family plays a central role in the individual’s major text for the study of social organisations.
life. Status in such society is also ascribed. Villages are Major works:
• Methodology of Social Sciences (1904) 2. Gessellschaft: These kind of societies are mainly found • The Protestant Ethics and Spirit of Capitalism (1904) in cities and industrial societies. Corresponding to these societies, he advocated two types of ‘will’ in human soci- His major contributions (concepts):
Important works:
• Gemienschaft and Gessellschaft (1887) Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
Durkhiem (1858-1917)
He supported Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natu- He is one of the founding fathers of modern sociology. In ral selection. He coined the phrase “Survival of the Fittest”.
opposition to attempts to explain human conduct solely in terms of psychology, he developed an account of stability Major works:
and change in all societies in ‘The Division of Labour in Major works:
• The Division of Labour in Society (1893) • The Rules of Sociological Method (1895) • The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) Major contributions:
• Spencer believed social progress was not linear but divergent. He that said societies that transform more in response to their immediate social and natural environment • He advocated three main laws and four secondary He mentioned three types of suicide and said that causes propositions for the study of change processes.
Main laws:
Edmund Leach (1910-1989)
Secondary propositions:
His main focus was in the study of myth and rituals. He also did his research on linguistic categories and political • Co-relation of the continuity between the force.
• The maintenance of principles of motion or constant Major works:
• Political Systems of Highland Burma (1954) • Integration of various parts of society for its survival • Genesis as Myth and Other Essays (1969) * • Processes that maintain necessary integration • Its contribution to maintain social solidarity’ Brown has also opined that these are certain principles which are ap- Major contributions:
plicable for classificatory system of kinship, e.g.- • Unit of lineage group, i.e., members of unit.
• Unity of sibling group, i.e., brother and sister as one unit.
• Interpretation of Structuralist Thought R K Merton
Evans Pritchard (1858-1917)
Merton has been described as the founder of sociology of He was an eminent anthropologist who did ethno- science in its modern form. His work is noted for the close graphic studies of a number of African Societies. His main connections between theoretical issues and empirical evi- emphasis of study was humanistic rather than scientific.
dence. In the late 1940s, he argued for ‘theory of middle Major works:
range’, in contradiction to ‘grand theory’ being elaborated Major works:
• Science, Technology and Society in 17th Century En- His major contribution to the development of social thought • Social Theory and Social Structure (1949) • Study of structuralism in linguistics • Sociological Ambivalence and Other Essays (1976) Karl Mannhein (1893-1947)
Major contributions:
His main achievement was in ‘Sociology of Knowledge’ but he also wrote on political subjects, especially democratic planning and on education. His work ‘The Sociology of Knowledge’ represents an imaginative, if not entirely coher- Talcott Parsons (1902-1979)
ent fusion of the two influences of German Historicism and Parsons attempted to synthesise many disparate elements into one overall conceptual framework for the social sci- Major works:
ences. His ‘social system’ (1957) attempts to demonstrate that consensus or shared values are essential for social • Freedom, Power and Democratic Planning (1958) Major works:
His major contributions to social thought include:
• The structure of Social Action (1937) • Theory of existential or social conditioning of thought.
• Towards a General Theory of Action (1957) with • Study of generational elements in determining social Main contributions to social thought include:
L H Morgon
Major works:
• System of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family • The role of subjectivity in taking decisions regarding means to be chosen. He talked of three motives behind Major contributions:
• His classification of social evolution- • Barbarianism• Civilisation• His contribution in the field of marriage and family.
Radclrffe Brown (1881-1955)
Brown studied various types of structural system and pointed
out in detail about:
a) Social Morphology
b) Social Physiology
His area of research also comprised social structures
and its functions.
Major works:
• Structure and Function in Primitive Societies
• The Andaman Islanders
His major contributions:
While studying social structures and their functions, he
OF MEDICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC SOCIAL WORK IN IN- Freud’s view that nobody is cent percent normal though held by some as an exaggeration, it should be accepted beyond doubt that abnormality is perhaps the major prob-lem of a modem civilized society. It is, however, unfortunate HEALTH / MENTAL HEALTH CARE SYSTEM —
that this problem has been very much neglected in India.
POLICIES, PROGRAMMES, ANALYSIS OF EXISTING Psychologists should consider it to be their first and fore- most duty to help the mentally ill person to lead as far aspracticable a normal life in the society. Those who help in solving serious personality problems and deal with people having problems of adjustment definitely contribute to thewelfare of the humanity. Perhaps this would be the greatest SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AND PHYSI- and finest contribution of a psychologist to the mankind.
Therefore, Coleman (1981) views that the study of abnor-mal behaviour may be of great value in bettering individual ROLE OF SOCIAL WORK IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY adjustment and in reducing the great amount of misery aris- SYSTEM AND IN INSTITUTIONS FOR THE DISABLED.
ing out of mental illness and maladjustment in modern so-ciety.
In primitive times, abnormality was considered as a kind of SPECIALIZED MEDICALAND MENTAL HEALTH INSTITU- mystical or spiritual occurrence. They thought that some people are enchanted by some evil spirits and thus the CHILD GUIDANCE CLINICS, STRESSAND CRISIS INTER- patients were treated in a very crude and unscientific pro- cess. Today it is neither considered terrible nor uncom-
mon. Many persons suffering from mental diseases are
amenable to treatment.
A scientific study of abnormal behaviour is essential
for the following facts:-
To know the nature and the cause of abnormality it leads
us to understand the mechanism of abnormal mind, diag-
nose the disease and predict the progress of the disease.
Hence abnormality no longer stands as a mystery or a
2.A correct understanding of abnormality can check, pre-
vent and cure the disease.
Modern psychopathology is also of great importance for
common man as already discussed. In America every year
about 1,50,000 or more new patients are admitted to men-
tal hospitals. These figures do not include the patients go-
ing to private clinics for counselling and treatment. More-
over, the innumerable mild cases which are never referred
to a psychiatrist remain unrepresented. In America as sta-
tistics shows, about 10 percent of population suffer from
severe types of mental diseases or insanity as it is popu-
larly called. It has also been estimated that about 15 per-
cent of the undergraduate students of American Colleges
need the services of the psychological counsellor. Prob-
ably, at sometime or other it is expected that most of the
students may need some sort of psychological counselling
and advice because of the competitive situation of the col-
lege campus and academic life. In India though the per-
centage may not be that high in comparison to their west-
ern counterparts usually 4 to 5 percent seek regular guid-
ance and counselling from an expert in the area. This is
also the author’s personal experience who has been in the
teaching profession for 27 years.
In view of the above facts, abnormal psychology has been
of tremendous importance for modern people. The implica-
tions and significance of abnormal psychology lies in study-
ing the maladjusted and abnormal personality. It is also of
value to the so called normal people of the society. This
supports Freud’s view that nobody is cent percent normal
and every body needs some sort of guidance, counselling
and advice to overcome anxiety, depression, worries and viduals marked by limited intelligence, emotional instabil- other major/minor mental illness arising out of the stresses, ity, personality disorganization and character defects who strains and competitiveness of modern society.
in most part led wretched personal lives and were social Modern psychopathology is also of great need and impor- tance to medicine. In fact, it is predicted that 50 percent of Thus, abnormality and normality can only be defined in terms the medicines in future will be psychological medicines. It of conformity to the will and welfare of the group and in the is of tremendous importance to common man as over 10 percent of the total population is expected to suffer from A close analysis of various types of abnormal behaviour severe mental illness and tentatively every one of the popu- indicates that , abnormal behaviour circumscribes a wide lation is likely to suffer from at least mild mental illness or range of maladoptive reactions like psychoneuroses, psy- choses, delinquents, sexually deviants, and drug addicts NORMAL AND ABNORMAL
etc. Thus, same kind of biological, social and psychologi- cal maladjustment affects the functioning of the individual The common pattern of behaviour found among the general in a society. The abnormal deviants who constitute about majority is said to be the behaviour of the normal. Normal 10 percent of the general population are classified into four people exhibit satisfactory work capacity and earn adequate main categories; such as psychoneurotic, psychotic, men- income. They conform and adjust to their social surround- ing. They are capable of establishing, satisfying and ac- CONCEPTS OF ABNORMALITY
ceptable relationship with other people and their emotional While distinguishing between normality and abnormality reactions are basically appropriate to different situations.
many concepts of abnormality have developed some of which Such people manage to control their emotions. Their emo- tional experiences do not affect their personality adjust- QUALITATIVE CONCEPT
ment though they experience occasional frustrations and According to the qualitative concept, normality and abnor- conflict. These people who adjust well with themselves, their mality differ in quality and not in quantity. These two con- surroundings and their associates constitute the normal cepts are separated from each other by water tight com- group. The normal group covers the great majority of people.
According to Colcman (1981) normal behaviour will repre- Not long ago, the insanes, criminals and mentally deficients sent the optimal development and functioning of the indi- were considered to form a special group below the normal vidual consistent with the long term well being and progress group, just as the gifteds were considered to constitute a special group above the normal group. It was also accepted Thus, people having average amount of intelligence, per- that the insane, delinquent and genius were governed by sonality stability, social adaptability are considered as nor- distinctly different laws. Thus, according to the qualitative concept, the insane and genius have no similarity with the ABNORMAL
The concept of abnormality is defined as the simple exag- This popular conception of the distribution of human per- geration or perverted development of the normal psycho- sonality is represented below diagramatically which aptly logical behaviour. In other words, it deals with the usual suggests a qualitative difference between the insane, nor- behaviour of man. The unusual or maladapted behaviour of many persons which do not fit into our common forms of To indicate the difference between the abnormal, the nor- behaviour is known as abnormal behaviour. Abnormality re- mal and the superior each group has been described as a fers to maladjustment to one’s society and culture which surrounds him. It is the deviation from the normal in anunfavourable and pathological way.
According to Brown (1940) abnormal psychological phe-nomena are simple exaggerations (over development orunder development) or disguised (i.e., perverted develop-ments) of the normal psychological phenomena. It is ex-pected, for instance, that a normal human being would re-act to a snake by immediately withdrawing from it. But ifthe person on the contrary, plays with the snake very hap-pily, it is a sign of uncommon behaviour which may be con-sidered as abnormal provided that past experience or train-ing does not play a part here. A person who has been byprofession trained from the very childhood to deal withsnakes will not be afraid of a snake and if he does notwithdraw from a snake, will not be considered abnormal.
Coleman (1981) holds that deviant behaviours are consid-ered as maladaptive because they are not only harmful tothe society, but to the individual. Maladaptive behaviour im-pairs individual and group well being and it brings distressto the individual. It also leads to individual and group con-flicts.
Page (1976) views that the abnormal group consists of indi- SOCIAL WORK AND DEVELOPMENT
Social Development is a process of change from the tradi- tional way of living of rural communities to progressive wayof living. It is a method by which people can be assisted to APPROACHES AND STRATEGIES —
develop themselves on their own capacity and resources.
Social development is a programme for accomplishing cer-tain activities in the fields concerning the welfare of the rural people as well as the urban people. And last but notthe least the social development is a movement for progress with a certain ideological content.
The word Social Developmental means, the development GLOBAL EFFORTS FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT,
of the people of the society, but it is in a very narrow sense.
The development of the people of the society is a vague CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.
meaning and even it is too vast. This is vague meaning inthe sense that the development of the people in which area.
And it is vast in the sense that the development of thepeople of the society in every areas. The “Social Develop- PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA.
ment”; means the development of the people of the societyin different ways, such as economic development, educa-tional development, social welfare, etc. For the social de-velopment there can be two major headings. The first is theeconomic welfare and the second is the social welfare.
These two things are very essential for the social develop-ment. Both the words are complementary for the socialdevelopment. Economic welfare gives emphasis to the de-velopment of economy, through which people can increasetheir per-capita income and develop their levels of life’s stan-dard. Whereas social welfare give emphasis to the devel-opment of the people economically as well as socially suchas health, child welfare, education, labour welfare, womenwelfare, etc. So the social development combines both theaspects the economic values and the social or moral val-ues together for the betterment of the society and it’s people.
Social development is not the new idea. The term is newbut the concept is very old. In old-age also social develop-ment work was going on but in a different manner, we canrefer the history of “Mohanjodaro”, “Harrappa-Civilization”,and so on. It is often said that the social development is“an old wine in a new “bottle” or “an old idea in a new dress.”There is hundred percent truth in the statement, becausesocial development uses new methods to achieve its goals.
Before the Advent of Freedom
Most countries of the Third World gained their indepen-
dence in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s of the last cen-
tury. Prior to independence, all these countries were poor
and underdeveloped though they differed a great deal from
one another in the degree of their poverty, in the stage of
their techno-economic development, and even in the legiti-
macy of their claim to nationhood or to their historicity as a
people with a unifying and continuous tradition. They were
generally characterised by high birth and death rates, low
expectancy of life at birth, low rates of literacy and by edu-
cation limited to a small elite. Their primarily agrarian econo-
mies were subsistence-oriented except in some sections
where the European masters had developed plantations of
tea, coffee and rubber or where, as in India, a small local
response had developed to the demands for cotton, oil-
seeds, sugar and tobacco from local as well as foreign
markets. Small new towns had developed and mud roads
connecting them to the villages on the one hand and the
larger metropolitan cities on the other had been laid down.
The small towns served as centres of administration and
as collection centres for agricultural produce; they provided and least, the social and religious framework.
high school education and served as locations for lower The Post-Independence Situation
and middle-level courts established by the alien rulers. These I have dealt with this pre-independence situation in the coun- rulers had also laid down the major arterial routes of a rail- tries of Asia and Africa because it will help in understanding way system and developed a postal system using canoes, the type of overall, societal goals they set for themselves horse-carts, buses and railways as means of surface trans- prior to and after independence. Prior to independence, the port. In all these countries, alien rule had been a modernising goal was primarily political, viz., the attainment of freedom.
influence affecting their traditional legal, economic and mili- Different parties and political leaders gave a different sub- tary systems; in some of them, alien rule was also the first stantive content to the idea of freedom and what it would unifying influence which brought different ethnic or linguis- help achieve, but on the goal of freedom from alien rule they tic groups together. In India, alien rule was accompanied were generally united. On attainment of freedom, many of by new systems of law and administration, by changes in the countries have experienced political strife and instabil- education, and by the arrival of Christian missionaries. There ity and between them witnessed governments which are as was also the enlargement of internal and external trade. In varied as monarchies, military dictatorships, parliamentary India, the nationalist movement grew largely out of the im- democracies and people’s democracies. In most cases, pact of ideas and institutions introduced by the British. On the political problems arose not because the new rulers the whole, the modernising influence exercised by foreign tried to implement their pre-independence promises nor governments, traders and missionaries was more readily because they had failed to do so. The strife has been pri- perceptible in the economic, political, legal and educational marily due to the fight for spoils among the rival political institutions. The familial and religious institutions proved leaders, sometimes within the same party. Occasionally, relatively less amenable to sudden change; the social and the strife has an ideological colouring, but for the most part religious movements which arose in response to the chal- it can be related to tribal loyalties and to rival ethnic group- lenge of western ideas tended, on the one hand, to reinter- ings in many of the countries in Africa and Asia. Those who pret and defend established practices and, on the other, to are in power have sought to use the demands of national make a plea for new modes of adaptive change. They pre- security as a base for unity and consolidation but without a vented the development of a breach in the continuity of so- corresponding readiness to make the concept of a nation more meaningful to the less privileged groups in society.
This was not uniformly the experience of all countries un- Whatever the ideological hue of the governments in Asia, der colonial rule. Generally, it may be possible to say that they are all faced with a common social and economic re- the simpler cultures of Africa accepted social and religious ality. The countries are poor with varying proportions of 30 change more readily than the more complex cultures of to 40 per cent of their populations living below the poverty Asia. But, even large-scale conversions of whole tribes to line. Poverty in their case means not only relative depriva- Christianity did not always mean a change in their basic tion but also the lack of the rudimentary requirements of religious belief. Sometimes it meant only the substitution life—adequate food, clothing and shelter. In spite of poverty of a new deity for the old one with the existing complex of and the low level of industrialisation, most countries have beliefs and worship remaining largely untouched. This was witnessed rapid population growth and a firm trend of city- also the case in India where large-scale conversion of the ward migration of rural peoples. The growth in population lower castes and untouchables took place in certain areas.
was due to the reduced death rates resulting from systems Since education was limited to a relatively small, urban of public health that had been developed earlier by the colo- elite, the new ideas that it introduced remained on the sur- nial rulers. Today, more than half of the world’s population face, accepted in part and as per convenience by the urban lives in Asia. The migration to cities has resulted from the dwellers. The extent to which the urban elite in different failure of the outmoded agricultural technology to support countries served as agents for communicating these new growing populations; the present percentages of urban popu- ideas to larger segments of the native rural and urban popu- lation are relatively low—only about 10-20 per cent, but al- lation varied considerably from one country to another and ready, the absolute number of urban dwellers in Asia and even within a country from one region to another. The varia- Africa closely approximates this number in the developed tions between countries were the result of several factors, not the least of which was the existence or otherwise of a The countries are poor, but the poverty is not distributed major cultural tradition which bound the different segments uniformly. Typically, the countries are characterised by great and strata of the native society together through a system inequalities based partly on the traditional hierarchical struc- of interlinked, if not universally shared, values and through tures of caste and race and partly on the varying abilities of the existence of a literary class whose one of major func- different groups to utilise the new opportunities that arose tions was to interpret the tradition of the group to every new in administration, commerce and incipient industry during generation. Wherever such a tradition had existed—as, for the colonial period. Inequality breeds further inequality and instance, in India—some members of the urban, educated most countries have witnessed a widening of income dis- middle-class thought it their responsibility to communicate their changed or ‘modern’ values to others atleast in theirown stratum and to those immediately below it. This theydid by writing, public speaking and through the establish-ment of associations for the special purpose of propagatingtheir ideas. But, even in these countries, ‘modernisation’was a weak force which penetrated society unevenly andinfluenced most, the economic and politico-legal structures SOCIAL WORK MCQ’S
1. The developmental tasks of self evaluation and skill
2. Conjugal family consists of two mates of opposite sex learning are associated with what life stage?
3. Consanguineous family consists of two mates of oppo- Which of the statements given above is correct? 2. The 2 most common defenses used by couples with
marital problems are
13. Consider the following statements about family:
1. Family regulates sexual behaviour through incest taboo 3. Family serves as an occupational guild 4. Family provides predictable social contexts within which 3. Which of the following characteristics is usually not
found in families in which incestuous relationships
Which of the above statements are correct? have occurred?
14. Among the muslims, a wife can obtain release from
her marriage by giving consideration to husband
(d) Moralistic attitudes to extramarital affairs whose consent is essential.
4. Which of the following medications is primarily used
What is this type of divorce called?
in the treatment of psychosis?
15. The biological capacity to reproduce is usually
5. A man is seen in the ER with complaints of visual
hallucinations, confusion and restlessness. He also has
chills, dilated pupils and nausea. He says “nothing is
wrong, I just need sleep”. Which of the following sub-
16. Consider the following factors :
stances is most likely the cause of the condition?
3. Change of residence on permanent or at least semi-per- 6. Borderline personality disorder is characterized by
all of the following characteristics except
4. Being away from the place of normal residence during Which of these is/are the determining factors(s) in defining 7. Through Tebhaga Movement the sharecroppers
demanded to retain:
17. Disparity in income levels of different economic
entities are measured on:
Directions (18-30): The following items consist of two
8. The tendency to see one’s own ideas, beliefs and
statements, one labeled as “Assertion A” and the other
practices superior to that of others is called:
labeled as “Reason R”. You are to examine these two
statements carefully and select the answers to these
items using the codes given below:
9. Illegal activities carried out by professionals and
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct business men are called:
(b) Both A and R. are individually true but R is not the cor- 10. Which one of the following tribes initiated the
Jharkhand movement?
18. Assertion (A): The father, who has to be the loving par-
ent, faces, the problem of role-strain because he finds it 11. Which one of the following was a peasant move-
necessary to discipline his son with stem measures.
Reason (R): Role-strain is a feeling of difficulty or stress in
fulfilling the demands of one’s role obligations.
19. Assertion (A): Durkheim observed that crime is an in-
tegral part of all ‘healthy societies’.
Reason (R): All deviant acts are not criminal.
12. Consider the following statements:
20. Assertion (A): The importance of work as yell as its
1. Extended family consists of two mates of opposite sex frequency is not going to experience a considerable de- cline in the society of the feature.
Reason (R): Wages or the money that people need for
sustenance will be based on flexi-time:
21. Assertion (A): Socially sanctioned sex gratification is
a basis for marriage.
Reason (R): Marriage regulates sexual relations between
22. Assertion (A): Secondary groups are more influential
in industrial society than in tribal and agrarian societies. .
Reason (R): Industrial society has more technic and com-
plex system,
23.Assertion (A): Urbanization refers to the process
whereby people are influenced by the values, behaviour,
institutions and material things that are products of the city.
Reason (R): The city is considered as a dynamic source of
change that produces a complex, heterogeneous and highly
specified social organization.
24. Assertion (A): The powers that gave birth to industrial-
ization diminish the Religion.
Reason (R): Religion is an internal attitude which is not
easily amenable to observation and measure.
25. Assertion (A): The death rate among the Korkus in
Amaravathi district of Maharashtra is very high due to a
certain genetic defect.
Reason (R): The tribe suffers from sickle cell disease which
reduces the immunity of the tribals.
26. Assertion (A): In order to survive, an authoritarian states
resorts to repression, permanent mobilization and manipu-
Reason: (R): In an authoritarian state, the bureaucratic
apparatus becomes responsive, to the need of the masses.
27. Assertion (A): In post-independent India, Dalits have
gained political protection but their socio-economic progress
is not satisfactory.
Reason (R): Indian society is a caste-ridden society where
only certain caste-groups can have social and economic
28. Assertion (A): In village India, factions are hardly based
Reason (R): inspite of changes in the actions, strategies
and rules of the game, clash of personal interests is the
real cause of factionalism.
29. Assertion (A): Electronics, automobiles and other means
of modem transport have brought significant changes in the
social relationships among the human beings.
Reason (R): Science and technology have affected the at-
titudes, values and behaviour of people across the societ-
30. Assertion (A): All, cities are growing rapidly. Nearly 40
percent of the population is below 20 years of age and 48
percent are adults between 20 and 49 years.
Reason (R): Land Degradation together with other social
and economic factors has also led to greater immiserisation
of the peasantry prompting greater labour mobility to urban

Source: http://www.zenitheducation.net/ugcnotes/social%20work-e.pdf

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