Abstracts / Journal of Biotechnology 136S (2008) S527–S540
(ACE) inhibitory activity, and the inhibitory pattern was found to
Rahman, M., Oomori, A., Uehara, T.T., 2008. Carbonic anhydrase in calciﬁed
endoskeleton: novel activity in bio-calciﬁcation in alcyonarian. Mar. Biotechnol.
50 values of compound 1
, compound 2
were 63.9 M, 33.6 M and 153.6 M, respectively.
The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of compounds, ﬁnal concentra-
tions of 0.0225, 0.1125, 0.225 and 0.45 of compounds were tested for
enzyme inhibitory activity and it was observed that it could inhibittyrosinase at IC50 of 0.624 mM, 0.382 mM, and 1.15 mM, respec-
tively. The results showed that compound 2
could exhibit tyrosinase
activity by approximately 63.2% higher than those of compound 1
Bioresources mining from deep sea
. The inhibitory pattern was found to be non-competitive.
Xiang Xiao ∗, Xixiang Tang, Meixiang Xu, Zhiwei Yi, Xiang Zeng,Lijin Jiang
Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of
Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, PR
Citron, M., Teplow, D.B., Selkoe, D.J., 1995. Generation of amyloid ␤-protein from its
precursor is sequence speciﬁc. Neuron 14, 661–670.
Ferrari, R., 2005. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in cardiovascular dis-
Oceans constitute more than 70% area of the earth with an average
ease: evidence with perindopril. Expert. Rev. Cardiovasc. Ther. 3, 15–29.
Guo, Q., Zhao, B., Shen, S., Hou, J., Hu, J., Xin, W., 1999. ESR study on the
depth of 3800 m. The deep sea is the remained largest unex-
structure–antioxidant activity relationship of tea catechins and their epimers.
plored area on earth. Although deep ocean exploration is still in
Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1427, 13–23.
its infancy, it is now believed that the deep sea harbors someof the most diverse ecosystems on earth. This diversity holds
tremendous potential for human beneﬁt. Most of the deep sea isdark, cold, high pressure, low oxygen, low nutrient extreme envi-
ronments, while the temperatures of the deep-sea hydrothermalvents could reach high to more than 350 ◦C. Deep-sea microorgan-
Aspartic acid-rich proteins in insoluble organic matrix play a
isms are considered as the most important components of marine
key role in the growth of calcitic sclerites in alcyonarian coral
ecosystems. By using molecular-based culture-independent micro-
biological methods, it was revealed that the deep-sea extremeenvironments contain highly diversiﬁed microbial communities.
Department of Chemistry, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru,
Meanwhile, some microorganisms have been isolated from several
deep-sea environments, many of them were deﬁned as new species
and extremophiles. Here we report some of our work on biore-
sources mining from deep sea by utilization of multiple approachesincluding culture-dependant and -independent molecular meth-
Acidic proteins play a major role in bio-calciﬁcation (
ods. A large number of deep-sea microorganisms were isolated
These proteins are generally thought to control
by using a comprehensive array of designed cultivation media.
Some of the retrieved deep-sea microorganisms were found hav-
proteinaceous components in the soluble and insoluble matrix frac-
ing commercial potentials for industrial enzyme production and
tions of Sinularia polydactyla
indicates that aspartic acid composes
environment bioremediation Novel antitumor
about 61% of the insoluble and 29% of the soluble matrix fractions.
compounds were puriﬁed and structure determined from a few of
Using an in vitro assay, we show that matrix proteins induced
the deep-sea microorganisms (Cosmid libraries were
formation of amorphous CaCO3 precipitates prior to their trans-
constructed from some of the deep-sea samples and used for anti-
formation into the calcitic crystalline form. The crystalline form
of CaCO3 in the sclerites was also identiﬁed by X-ray diffraction,
were found to have antitumor activity, disruption of some genes on
revealing calcitic polymorphisms with a strong (104) reﬂection. The
the cosmid diminished the antitumor activity of the clones. These
structure of alcyonarian organic matrices containing aspartate-rich
genes hold great promise to further study and understand the anti-
proteins and polysaccharides was assessed by Fourier transform
tumor mechanism of the cells. Our results again indicated that the
infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Electrophoretic analyses of proteins
deep sea is a big reservoir of new bacterial species with potential
extracted from the soluble and insoluble organic matrix of sclerites
revealed two proteins that may be glycosylated. Calcium-bindinganalysis of components in the insoluble matrix fraction indicated
that a protein of 109 kDa can bind Ca2+, which is important for scle-rite formation. An assay for carbonic anhydrase enzyme, which is
Li, D.H., Wang, F.P., Cai, S., Zeng, X., Xiao, X., Gu, Q., Zhu, W., 2007. Two new bisor-
thought to play an important role in the process of bio-calciﬁcation
bicillinoids isolated from a deep-sea fungus Phialocephala
sp. FL30r. J. Antibiot.
(evealed novel activity. These results strongly
Xu, M.X., Xiao, X., Wang, F.P., 2008. Isolation and characterization of alkane hydrox-
suggest that the aspartic acid-rich proteins within the insoluble
ylases from a metagenomic library of Paciﬁc deep-sea sediment. Extremophiles
matrix of alcyonarians play a key role in biomineralization regula-
Xu, M., Wang, F.P., Meng, J., Xiao, X., 2007. Construction and preliminary analysis of a
metagenomic library from a deep-sea sediment of east Paciﬁc Nodule Province.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 62, 233–241.
Zeng, X., Xiao, X., Wang, P., Wang, F.P., 2004. Screening and characterization of psy-
chrotrophic, lipolytic bacteria from deep-sea sediments. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
Addadi, L., Weiner, S., 1985. Interactions between acidic proteins and crystals: stere-
ochemical requirements in biomoneralization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82,4110–4114.
Rahman, M.A., Isa, Y., Takemura, A., Uehara, T., 2006. Analysis of proteinaceous com-
ponents of the organic matrix of endoskeletal sclerites from the alcyonarianLobophytum crassum
. Calcif. Tissue Int. 78, 178–185.
Mexico: Informing Service Providers and Factory Workers about Emergency Contraception Ricardo Vernon Frontiers in Reproductive Health Population Council Final report of the project, Dissemination of Knowledge of Emergency Contraception among Service Providers and Factory Personnel , conducted in Mexico during January-March 1999. This study was funded by the U.S. AGENCY FO
Virginia Commonwealth University Department of Psychology Joseph H. Porter Professor and Director of Biopsychology Program Affiliate Professor in the Departments of Pharmacology & Toxicology and Biology Education Ph.D. (1974), University of Georgia Program affiliation Biopsychology Book Porter, J. H., & Hamm, R. J. (1986) Statistics: Applications for the behavioral s