Impotentie brengt een constant ongemak met zich mee, net als fysieke en psychologische problemen in uw leven cialis kopen terwijl generieke medicijnen al bewezen en geperfectioneerd zijn
Multi-drug resistance in rough collies (mdr1)
Multi-drug Resistance in Rough Collies (MDR1)
Link to EACA'S MDR1 Health Imformation.
It is now widely accepted that some Collies appear to be hypersensitive to certain toxins (natural or drug-induced) and are more prone to stress-related problems.
The problem first came to light in 1983 when several Collies died from Ivermectin poisoning and, since then, the veterinary profession has accepted this drug should never be given to Collies. More recently a Rough Collie died from eating horse faeces (Ivermectin is used for worming horses and any excess drug passes out with their faeces).
Researchers have since found that approximately 60% of Rough and Smooth Collies appear to be susceptible not only to Ivermectin, but to a wide range of other drug substances. The MDR1 (multi-drug resistant) gene is responsible for ensuring the body’s natural P-glycoprotein functions normally by protecting the body from both environmental toxins and administered toxins eg drugs, and acting as a transport mechanism moving substances from cell to cell. P-glycoproteins are normally extensively distributed in the blood-brain and blood-testes barriers as well as major organs such as the liver, kidneys, intestines and placenta. When they are present in the intestinal tract three things normally happen – the substance may be metabolised; it may enter the circulatory system; or it may be passed out of the large intestine with the faeces.
In MDR1-affected dogs the function of the P-glycoprotein is compromised and so toxins may leak into the major organs. If these compounds leak across the blood-brain barrier, they enter the central nervous system causing toxic reactions such as excessive salivation, Ataxia, blindness, coma, respiratory problems and even death.
Because of a lack of the p-glycoprotein transporter in the body, an MDR1-affected dog also tends to have a deficiency of Cortisol (a steroid hormone produced by the Adrenal glands). Cortisol is responsible for stress management and the maintenance of an efficient immune system, and a deficiency can therefore lead to stress-related problems such as colitis or inflammatory bowel disease.
An MDR1 Normal dog (N/N or +/+) receives a healthy MDR1 gene from each of its parents
and can therefore only pass on healthy genes to its offspring. The healthy + genes are
dominant and such animals do not exhibit drug toxicity.
A ‘Carrier’ (+/-) is a dog that has received a normal [dominant] MDR1 gene from one of its
parents, and a defective gene [recessive] from the other parent which is 'carried' by the
dominant + gene. Please bear in mind that a carrier can pass either a normal or a defective
genes onto its offspring resulting in approximately 50% of the puppies inheriting a defective
MDR1 gene. Theoretically the 'carrier' animal should not be susceptible to drug toxicity but
unfortunately the dominance of the MDR1 + gene has been found to be incomplete as some
‘carrier’ animals also appear to be susceptible to high doses of those drugs that cause
problems in MDR1-affected dogs, that is, those with two defective MDR1 genes (-/-).
An Affected dog (-/-) receives a defective or mutant MDR1 gene from both its parents, so
such dogs are double recessive and will display toxic reactions to a wide range of drug
compounds (see list below). In 2007 a genetic test was made available for MDR1 and so It is
extremely important that breeders try and use Normal (+/+) dogs in their breeding
programmes so as to eliminate the defective MDR1 genes as soon as possible.
If you have an MDR1-affected Collie (-/-) you could be in a position to save its life by providing your veterinary surgeon with a copy of its MDR1 Certificate and the list of drug compounds that your Collie should never be given. Of those vets who have already been asked to put MDR1 test results onto a Collie’s records, all have been aware of the Ivermectin problem but have had no idea about the broad spectrum of drug compounds that can severely threaten an
MDR1-affected dog. Please note there are usually alternative, safe drugs your Collie could be given instead.
The table here shows three classes of drug compounds: Class A includes substances that have been proven to pass through the blood-brain barrier in MDR1-affected dogs and cause problems; Class B lists substances which have shown interactions in animal tests, whereas Class C substances can be given without problems, even to affected dogs
PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE: INFORMATION FOR PARENTS AND EDUCATORS By Adena B. Meyers, PhDIllinois State University The term adolescent pregnancy brings to mind a number of related issues such as adolescentsexuality, premarital sex, birth control, abortion, adolescent childbearing, adolescent parenthood,unplanned pregnancy, unintended birth, out-of-wedlock birth, and single motherhood. M
International Projects: Health and Nurtrition Grant value over $250,00 Project Title Department Description Partners This grant will implement and evaluate a multi-faceted series of evidence-based interventions aimed at decreasing epilepsy-associated stigma, improving the socioeconomic status of PWE and lowering the rates of seizure-related morbidity and mortality in four Zamb