Impotentie brengt een constant ongemak met zich mee, net als fysieke en psychologische problemen in uw leven cialis kopen terwijl generieke medicijnen al bewezen en geperfectioneerd zijn
Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women during ante-natal clinic visits in parts of idah and igalamela/odolu local government areas
Journal of Applied Science and the Environment ISSN 2141-1360 2010 School of Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria.
MALARIA PARASITAEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN DURING ANTE-NATAL
CLINIC VISITS IN PARTS OF IDAH AND IGALAMELA/ODOLU LOCAL
GOVERNMENT AREAS OF KOGI STATE, NIGERIA
* O. YAHAYA, O. E MIACHI, I. O. UMAR AND E. UWAOKHONYE
Department of Science Laboratory Technology,
Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State.
The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia/anaemia in pregnancy, were determined during two
malaria transmission seasons in rural Idah and Igalamela-Odolu Local Government Areas of Kogi
State. In each survey, questionnaires were administered on previous parity history, gestational age
and malaria parasitaemia were determined. A total of 797 pregnant women were enrolled in five
(5) major clinics attended by pregnant women. A total of 384 (48.2%) that had microscopic
parasitaemia were interviewed using questionnaires. There were more positive cases among
primigravidae, and the results showed a significant difference (P<0.05) between the primigravidae
and multigravidae, but show no significant difference (P>0.05) between the trimesters. More
women were infected between the age ranges of 16– 25. Keywords:
Malaria, Pregnant, Parasitamia, Gravidae, Gestation age.
regardless of their parity. In a study by
Malaria is a parasitic infection that can
have serious impact on pregnant women in
Uganda, it was discovered that 55% of the
sub-saharan African and other tropical areas.
households are bed net users with the strongest
Thirty million out of 45 million women in
Africa become pregnant in malarial endemic
permanent house and agreeing that bed net are
areas each year (Feiko et al.,
Malarial infection during pregnancy is a
The prevention of HIV disease progression
major public health problem in tropical and
and vertical transmission, improved nutritional
sub-tropical regions throughout the world.
status and better management of malaria and
Africa bears 90% of the global malarial burden
intestinal parasitic infections are likely to
(RBM 2005). Plasmodium falciparum
reduce the incidence of low birth weight
infection during pregnancy increases the
(Dreyfuss et al.
, 2001). In area with moderate
chances of maternal anaemia, abortion, still
malaria transmission, women of all parities
have substantially increased risk of low birth
retardation and infant low birth weight.
Salihu et al
., (2003) reported that the
malarial infection in pregnancy. The risk of
effectiveness of chloroquine prophylaxis in
low birth weight is likely to be particularly
reducing the frequency of malaria-induced
high in area with a high prevalence of severe
anemia (Shulman et al.,
reports that P. falciparum
has resistance to
gravidity and subsequent infections with
chloroquine. On the Africa continent, malaria
multiple strains will effectively boost immune
chemo-suppression with the drug was found
mechanism against more and more strains. The
beneficial in reducing the risk of anaemia at
multiplicity of infections in pregnant women
may be an important factor for the acquisition
(Bouyansong, 2001; Bonnet et al.,
and maintenance of immunity against malarial
malarial affect more pregnant
(Beck et al.,
2001). Maternal pyrimethamine
women especially primigravidae (Saute et al.
prophylaxis did not appear to protect babies
2002), but clear parity pattern of malaria and
anaemia was not observed, however a more
demonstrable beneficial effect on the babies
cost effective malarial control approach in this
birth weight (Olowu et al.
, 2001). Antibodies
area should be aimed at all pregnant women
produced in pregnancy in response to placental
J. Appl. Sci. Environ., 2(1): 104-107, 2010
their first and second trimesters were more
antibodies in multigravidea and the delayed
infected than those in their third trimesters
production of antibodies in primigravidae
(Table 4). However, more women 109 (13%)
in their primigravidea had malaria while
differential susceptibilities of pregnant women
in placental malarial (O’neil et al.,
aim of this work was to study the prevalence
and the distribution of malaria parasitemia
This hospital based studies, showed a high
prevalence of malaria infection, 384 (48.1%),
over two-malaria seasons in 2005/2006. Both
MATERIALS AND METHODS
frequent during the rainy seasons. Similar
The prevalence and possible risk factors
results were obtained by Van-Eijk et al.
for malarial were investigated in 797 pregnant
(2001), who confirmed that first trimesters is
women attending the antenatal clinics in five
the main risk period (Table I), although it was
(5) health centers in Idah and Igalamela-Odolu
reported that age did not show any relationship
with the spread of malaria (P>0.005) (Pearson,
Nigeria, in two malaria seasons (2005-2006).
The health centers were General hospital,
women between the ages of 16-30 were most
Idah; General hospital, Ajaka; Adijat clinic
and maternity homes, Idah; Ojochogwu clinic,
Age distribution of malaria patients and
Idah; and The Federal Polytechnic Medical
their economic class revealed that those
Health center, Idah.Blood samples were taken
for malaria parasitaemia and anaemia. The
economic class were more susceptible to the
infection (Table 3). The statistics showed no
their various trimesters, age, number of
significant relationship between economic
pregnancy and their economic class. Thick and
class and malaria. The higher prevalence of
thin blood films were prepared from capillary
malaria among primigravidae in their first
blood stained with Giemsa stain and observed
trimesters could be attributed to inexperience
under low power objective. Parasite densities
in the area of antenatal care, exposure to
were determined by counting the number of
mosquito bite, non usage of insecticides
parasites from the various fields and slides
treated net etc. Increased gravidity and
were double checked blindly. All samples
subsequent infections with multiple strains,
will improve immune mechanism against more
and more strains. This agrees with the findings
of Beck et al
(2001) in Ghana as reasons why
RESULTS AND DICUSSION
were confirmed positive for malaria parasites.
pregnancy increase the chances of maternal
Out of these numbers, 152 (19%) were in their
anaemia, abortion, still birth, prematurity,
first trimesters, 160 (20%) were in their
intrauterine growth retardation and infant low
second trimesters, while 72 (9%) were in their
birth weight, which is the greatest single risk
third trimesters (Table 1). Table 2 shows the
factor for death in first month of life (Das,
distribution of pregnant women among the
2000). Malaria has been estimated to cause 8-
different age, revealed that there were more
14% of all low birth weight babies and 3-8%
cases between the ages of 16-30. However, no
of all infant deaths in areas of Africa with
relationship was established between malaria
stable malaria transmission (RBM, 2005).
and age of pregnant mothers (p>0.05).
In terms of its effect on mothers, severe
mortality, and malarial anaemia is estimated to
(P>0.005) among the various economic class
cause as many as 10000 maternal deaths each
and age distribution but showed that there
year in Africa. Providing rapid diagnosis and
were more cases of malaria between the ages
important component of effective control and
there are antimalarial drugs which are safe and
effective for use in pregnancy (Bounyasong,
J. Appl. Sci. Environ., 2(1): 104-107, 2010
2001). However, there remain obstacles to
Nuwaha, F. (2001) Factors influencing the use
reaching women who will benefit the most
Uganda. Am. J. Trop. Med.Hyg.
from them, particularly high-risk adolescent in
O’Neil S.T, Achur, R. N. Agbo, Enoh, S.
prevention to pregnant women will require
increased awareness of the problem among
communities most affected with malaria, and
C. (2001) Gravidity dependent production
integration of malaria control tools with other
of antibodies that inhibits binding of P.
women and new borns. The use of insecticide
pregnancy. Infect. Immune.
69 (12): 7487-
irrespective of age or parity, Education and
Olowu J. A., Sowunmi A. and Abohweyere A.
training programmes in malaria prevention and
early detection of malaria and treatment, better
hyperendemic area: a revisit. A.J.Med. Sci.
health care delivery systems and enlightment
on the malaria transmission will also be very
Pearson R.D. (2001). Prolactin, pregnancy and
aneamia in severe malaria, Trends of
K. (2001). Multiplicity of P. falciparum
infection of pregnant women. Am. J. Trop.
Bonnet R.E, Paul C. and Guagnu I. (2002)
effect of maternal haemoglobin status at
and Mortality in Cameroon. Tropical
delivery. Trop. Med. Int. Health
. 7 (1):
Medicine and International Health.
Saute F. Manandaz C. L., Major A. AponteJ.
Bouyansong S .(2001). Randomized Trial of
with Quinine sulfate to treat P falciparum
malaria pregnant women. Journal of
falciparum infections. Trop. Med. Intern.
Das L.K. (2000). Malaria during pregnancy
Shulman, C. E. Marshal T., Dorman, E. C.
and its effect on fetus in a Tibal area of
Koraput District, Orissa India. Journal of
adverse effect on the haemoglobin levels
Dreyfuss M. L, Msamanaga, G. I, Splegelman,
D, Hunter D. J, Urassa., E. J, Hertzark, K.
multigrividae. Trop Med. ntern. Health.
Van-Eijk, A.M. Ayisi, J.G. Ter-Knite, F.O.
pregnant women in Tanzania. Am. J.
Feiko T, Kuile F.O, Terlouio D.J, Philip-
Pregnancy. America Journal of Tropical
Kenya. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hygn
J. Appl. Sci. Environ., 2(1): 104-107, 2010
Table 1: Number and Percentage of positive parasitaemia based on Trimsters Trimesters
Table 2: Number and Percentage of positive parasitaemia based on Age. Age range
Table 3: Number and Percentage of positive parasitaemia based on economic class. Age range
Key: Low income include; traders, tailors, farmers, house wives, students and applicants. Middle class: civil servants.
Table 4: Age distribution and occurrence of malaria in various trimesters Age range
Table 5: Age distribution and number of positive parasitaemia in various number of pregnancies Age
Objet : Lettre aux professionnels de santé - Médicaments à base de dompéridone et sécurité d’emploi cardiovasculaire Information destinée aux médecins généralistes, gastro-entérologues, pédiatres, pharmaciens hospitaliers et d’officine. En accord avec l’Agence de sécurité sanitaire des produits de santé (Afssaps) et suite aux recommandations du Groupe de Trav
CONVENIO RELATIVO A LA OBLIGACIÓN DE DILIGENCIA POR PARTE DE LOS ESTABLECIMIENTOS BANCARIOS y DE AHORRO DE ANDORRA 9 DE ABRIL DE 1990 INTRODUCCIÓN, PREÁMBULO Los Bancos establecidos en el Principado de Andorra han adaptado hasta la fecha sus actividades a las normas habituales de la banca comercial, siguiendo los tradicionales usos y costumbres de los Bancos comerciales europeos. D