Microsoft word - 611-pregnancy.doc

AIDS InfoNet
Fact Sheet Number 611
Keep delivery time short: The risk of A pregnant woman should consider all of
The virus that causes AIDS can be transmission increases with longer delivery transmitted from an infected mother to her newborn child. Without treatment, about viral load (see Fact Sheet 125) under 1,000, • Pregnant women should not to use both 20% of babies of infected mothers get HIV. the risk is almost zero. Mothers with a high viral load might reduce their risk if they (Zerit, see Fact Sheet 414) in their antiviral Mothers with higher viral loads are more deliver their baby by cesarean (C-)section. treatment due to a high rate of a dangerous likely to infect their babies. However, no viral load is low enough to be “safe”. Do not breast-feed the baby: About 14%
Infection can occur any time during of babies will get HIV infection from infected pregnancy, but usually happens just before breast milk. This risk can be eliminated if • If you have more than 250 T-cells, do not or during delivery. The baby is more likely to HIV-infected women do not breast-feed start using nevirapine (Viramune). be infected if the delivery takes a long time. babies. Baby formulas should be used. In During delivery, the newborn is exposed to developing countries there might not be Some doctors suggest that women interrupt the mother’s blood. Drinking breast milk clean water to prepare baby formulas. The their treatment during the first 3 months of World Health Organization believes that the babies. Mothers who are HIV-infected risk of transmitting HIV is less than the risk • The risk of missing doses due to nausea should not breast-feed their babies. To
of using contaminated water for baby and vomiting during early pregnancy, giving reduce the risk of HIV infection when the father is HIV-positive, some couples have • The risk of birth defects, which is highest during the first 3 months. There is almost HOW DO WE KNOW IF A NEWBORN
no evidence of these birth defects, except IS INFECTED?
Most babies born to infected mothers test HOW CAN WE PREVENT INFECTION
positive for HIV. Testing positive means you combination therapy results in a higher risk OF NEWBORNS?
of premature or low birth weight babies. Mothers can reduce the risk of infecting their tests. Babies get HIV antibodies from their If you have HIV and you are pregnant, or if you want to become pregnant, talk with your doctor about your options for taking care of If babies are infected with HIV, their own
immune systems will start to make infection or birth defects for your new child. Use antiviral medications: The risk of
transmitting HIV is extremely low if antiviral positive. If they are not infected, the
medications are used. Transmission rates mother’s antibodies will disappear and the THE BOTTOM LINE
babies will test negative after about 6 to 12 combination antiviral therapy. The rate is during the last six months of her pregnancy, Another test, similar to the HIV viral load test (See Fact Sheet 125, Viral Load Tests), can after birth. See Fact Sheet 411 for more be used to find out if the baby is infected with HIV. Instead of antibodies, these tests The risk of transmitting HIV to a newborn can be virtually eliminated with “short Even if the mother does not take antiviral course” treatments taken only during labor and delivery. But short treatments increase methods cut transmission by almost half. WHAT ABOUT THE MOTHER’S the risk of resistance to the drugs used.
• AZT and 3TC (See Fact Sheet 415) HEALTH?
during labor, and for both mother and child Recent studies show that HIV-positive treatment for both mother and child. • One dose of nevirapine (See Fact Sheet sicker than those who are not pregnant. However, the risk of birth defects caused by 431) during labor, and one dose for the Becoming pregnant is not dangerous to the medications is greater during the first 3 months of pregnancy. If a mother chooses Combining nevirapine and AZT during labor and delivery cuts transmission to only 2%. However, “short-course” treatments to pregnancy, her HIV disease could get However, resistance to nevirapine can prevent infection of a newborn are not the worse. Any woman with HIV who is thinking best choice for the mother’s health. about getting pregnant should carefully the single dose. This reduces the success Combination therapies are the standard discuss treatment options with her doctor. of later antiviral therapy for the mother. treatment. If a pregnant woman takes Resistance to nevirapine can also be medications only during labor and delivery, transmitted to newborns through breast HIV might develop resistance to them. This feeding. However, the shorter regimens are can cause problems for the future treatment more affordable for developing countries. of the mother. See Fact Sheet 126 for more Revised April 17, 2005
A Project of the New Mexico AIDS Education and Training Center. Partially funded by the National Library of Medicine
Fact Sheets can be downloaded from the Internet at


Microsoft word - mrsa_is1a.doc

What is MRSA? Information sheet A – What is MRSA? Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterium that lives harmlessly on the skin and in the nose of about one third of the population. It was first identified in the 1880s when doctors realised it was the most common cause of infected surgical wounds. When penicillin was introduced in the 1940s, it helped tackle these infections but,

How Do You Make Sense of the Different types of teeth Whitening?everywhere you look there seems to be someone new offering teeth whitening. prices and methods vary greatly yet all try to claim top-quality results. So how does the consumer make sense of all the claims? to help you cut through the marketing spin we have summarised the differences between the major methods of teeth whitening and th

Copyright © 2010-2014 Online pdf catalog