plants use sunlight and carbon dioxide to make sugars warm-season grasses. they brown off in winter in southern which fuel their growth; this is photosynthesis. sunlight is australia. and C3 grasses, also known as cool-season harnessed for energy by the same process in all plants, but grasses, have their period of active growth in autumn and carbon dioxide can be taken up by different means in spring. While many brown off over summer, they remain different groups of plants.1 two pathways, the C3 and C4 pathways for the uptake of carbon dioxide, have evolved in at the time of european arrival, native grasslands were a the grasses. not only do these differ in the chemical mix of mainly perennial, warm- and cool-season grasses. reactions that incorporate carbon dioxide into organic in south australia, the drought tolerant and often tall- molecules and in the structures in which photosynthesis growing warm-season grasses were dominant over the occurs, they lead to marked differences in the distribution smaller cool-season grasses. While stock flourished on the and growth patterns of C3 and C4 grasses.2 diversity of year-round feed, the C4 summer-green species Only 1% of plants use the C4 pathway and more than 60% in particular were soon eaten out and to this day remain of these are grasses. among the australian grasses, some largely absent in the landscape.3 these mostly perennial 65% of native species are C4. they are most numerous in warm-season grasses have a far wider adaptive range and the northern territory, northern Queensland and the respond more rapidly to summer rain than the frequently Autumn WINTER Spring
Spring SUMMER Autumn
Kimberley, where they can make up more than 90% of the annual cool-season grasses that replaced them. as a group, grass species. On the other hand, C3 grasses are most the C4 grasses not only can have value in extending the numerous in the south-eastern and south-western corners availability of useful forage, but their active summer growth of australia. these distribution patterns relate particularly (when the annual cool-season grasses are dead) reduces to temperature and rainfall. in general, C4 species are more deep drainage to water tables, a factor contributing to common in areas with a warmer, wetter, growing season dryland salinity, and protects against erosion.4 and often with a drier cold season than are C3 grasses. Just as C3 and C4 grasses are actively growing at different Conversely, fewer C3 species are found in areas with high seasons, their seed germinates most reliably over different January average maximum temperature and more in areas temperature ranges. C3 grasses germinate best over a temperature range of 15–25 ºC while C4 grasses germinate the biochemical and structural differences between the C3 best over the range 25–35 ºC. Choice of sowing time largely and C4 pathways mean that the optimum temperature for depends on the rainfall distribution at the site and the photosynthesis is higher in C4 than in C3 plants. as a species to be sown. in south australia, C3 grass seed should result, C4 grasses tend to have their period of active growth be sown in autumn and C4 grass seed from spring to early in summer and so are also known as summer-active or summer to catch the growing conditions that suit each best. Autumn WINTER Spring
utumn WI R
ER Spring
Spring SUMMER Autumn
C H or activ
the genera listed here particularly refer to South
.5 a bracketed Latin name identifies the one
the generally accepted name for that genus. the various species can be found in grasses of south australia.6 Per GENERA
season grasses MON NAME
ennial nativ N
Cynodon (dactylon var. pulchellus) Couch-grass Umbrella-grass & Curly windmill-grass Monachather (paradoxus) Bandicoot grass Pentapogon (quadrifidus) Five-awned spear-grass * Neurachne has two C3 and one C4 species in south australia. Setaria References:
1. J.r. anderson & J. Beardall Molecular Activities of Plant Cells: An introduction to
5. W.r. Barker, r.M. Barker, J.p. Jessop & H.p. vonow (eds) Census of plant biochemistry. Blackwell scientific publications, Oxford & Melbourne, 1991.
South Australian Vascular Plants, 5th Edition, Botanic gardens of adelaide 2. r. sinclair, ‘ecophysiology of grasses’ in Flora of Australia, Vol 43, Poaceae 1, Introduction and Atlas, australian Biological resources study/CsirO, Canberra, 6. J. Jessop, g.r.M. dashorst & F.M. James, Grasses of South Australia: An illustrated guide to the native and naturalised species, Wakefield press, 3. J. reseigh, p. Foster & r.J. Myers, Native Grass Strategy for South Australia 2: Management of native grasses and grassy ecosystems for sustainable production 7. the Council of Heads of australasian Herbaria in 2011 accepted the and biodiversity conservation. rural solutions sa, adelaide, 2009. 2010 reclassification of Austrodanthonia, Joycea and Notodanthonia 4. B. Johnston, d. garden, s. ellis and C. Clifton, Hill Country Native Grasslands: to Rytidosperma by an international team of botanists (H.p. Linder et al. Better management for healthy catchments. Murray-darling Basin Commission, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 97(3), 2010, pp. 306-364.)


Microsoft word - newsletter april 2009.doc

Welcome to Spring 2009 Issue of the UK Clinical Ethics Network Newsletter Welcome to the UK Clinical Ethics Network Newsletter. Since our last newsletter in July 2008 we have been busy on a variety of fronts. As mentioned in the last newsletter the Network Board of Trustees commissioned Dr Martin Tweeddale to prepare a discussion document and proposal for a core curriculum for CECs. Marti

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