Acidemia A condition in which the blood is more acid and less
Aortic arch The second part of the aorta, which continues on
Acidosis An abnormal condition resulting from an increase in
from the ascending aorta and curves to the left and poste-
acids or from a depletion of alkali in the blood and body
Aortic valve The valve in the heart between the left ventricle
Acute A term used to describe a condition that appears sud-
and the aorta. It has three flaps or cusps.
denly or one that has a short and relatively severe course.
Arrhythmia An abnormal rhythm of the heart.
Adrenalin A drug that is used to increase the blood pressure,
Artery A blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to var-
heart rate and force of contraction of the heart. This results
ious parts of the body. Most arteries carry blood that is rich
in an increase in cardiac output from the heart. Injection of
in oxygen or well oxygenated. The main exception is the
adrenalin, which is also known as epinephrine, may cause
an irregularity of the heartbeat or an arrhythmia.
Arterial pressure The blood pressure in the arteries of the sys-
Alkalinity An abnormal condition resulting from a decrease in
acids or from an increase of alkali in the blood and bodytissues.
ASA physical class A classification system adopted by the
American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and used by
Anaesthesia A field of medicine involving the administration
anaesthetists to assess the pre-operative physical state or
of drugs that produce a loss of consciousness or sensation.
condition of a patient. There are five categories, and adding
The term also means a drug-induced state of lack of feel-
the postscript ‘E’ indicates that the patient is to undergo
ing. This may affect the entire body (as in general anaes-
an emergency operation. The ASA Class does not correlate
thesia), a region of the body (as in regional anaesthesia), or
with the risk of the anaesthetic, but does roughly correlate
a small amount of tissue (as in local anaesthesia).
with the risk of post-operative complications.
Anaesthetist A doctor who is specially trained to administer
Ascending aorta The first part of the aorta, which arises from
the left ventricle and gives off the right and left coronary
Annulus A structure shaped like a ring. For example, in the
arteries before continuing as the aortic arch.
heart, the base of the mitral valve is termed the annulus.
Aorta The large artery that takes blood from the left ventricle
A P P E N D I X
Atresia The absence or closure of a normal body opening or tubu-
Cannulation The act of insertion of cannulas into blood ves-
lar structure.For example,in pulmonary atresia there is block-
sels. This is a normal part of cardiopulmonary bypass.
age of the passage between the right ventricle and the lungs.
Cardiac arrest When the heart stops on its own or is stopped
Atrial septal defect (ASD) An abnormal opening or hole in the
from beating through drug or mechanical means.
septum between the right and left atria. Normally, the flow
Cardiac catheterization Examination of the heart by the pas-
of blood will be from left to right (left to right shunt). Blood
sage of a thin tube or catheter into an artery or vein and up
flow from right to left (right to left shunt) will be present
to the heart. This is done to sample oxygen, measure pres-
only if there are other complicating conditions leading to a
sures and make X-ray videos of how the heart functions.
higher pressure on the right side, such as pulmonary steno-sis or tricuspid atresia, which impede or prevent the normal
Cardiac output The volume of blood pumped by the heart
flow of blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
each minute. The amount of cardiac output equals the vol-ume of blood ejected with each heart beat (or stroke vol-
Atrioventricular (AV) canal defect A defect in the heart in
which there is a large hole in the centre of the heart. Thereare abnormal openings in the atrial and/or ventricular
Cardiac surgery Surgery on, within and around the heart. This
septa at the level of the atrioventricular valves. There are
may be open or closed-heart surgery.
also often abnormalities of the mitral and/or tricuspid
Cardiology The study of the heart and its functions in health
valves. These defects are also known by the inclusive term
‘persistent common atrioventricular canal deformities’.
There are three variants, which may be classified as partial,
Cardioplegia Intentional cardiac arrest or stopping of the
intermediate and complete AV canal deformities.
heart (to allow cardiac surgery) by injection into (or perfu-sion of) the coronary arteries with a special salt or blood
Atrioventricular (AV) valves The two valves that lie between
solution. The solution may be cold or warm and may con-
the atria and the ventricles. These valves are the tricuspid
tain different chemicals and drugs. Repeated injections are
(right) and the mitral (left) valves.
Atrium Either of the two upper chambers of the heart, in
Cardiopulmonary Pertaining to the heart and lungs.
which blood collects before being pumped to the ventri-cles. (The plural is atria.)
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) Diversion of the venous blood
going to the heart into a machine via a cannula. The machine
then adds oxygen and removes (if necessary) carbon dioxide
Azygous vein An unpaired vein in the chest, which serves to
from the blood and pumps it via another cannula into the
connect the superior and inferior vena cavas, as well as the
arterial side of the circulation, bypassing the heart.
Cardiovascular Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.
Bicuspid aortic valve An abnormality of the aortic valve in
Cardioversion Correction of an abnormal heart rhythm and
which there are only two cusps, instead of the normal
restoration of normal rhythm by delivery of one or more
mild electric shocks through the chest or directly onto the
Blalock-Taussig shunt An operation performed in cases of
heart. The machine used is called a cardioverter (or defib-
congenital pulmonary stenosis. An anastomosis is created
between the aorta (or one of its branches, such as the sub-
Catheterization The act of insertion of a catheter into a vessel
clavian artery) and one of the pulmonary arteries. This
or tube, which could be an artery, a vein or a bladder.
allows some of the blood from the systemic circulation tobe shunted into the pulmonary circulation.
Central venous pressure The pressure in the right atrium and
large veins of the chest. An estimate of this measurement
Blood pressure (BP) The force or pressure exerted by the
may be made by examining the large (jugular) vein in a
heart in pumping blood through the arteries.
patient’s neck. The pressure may also be measured directly
by inserting a special cannula into the jugular vein. Thismeasurement can give an estimate of the adequacy of the
Cannula A tube inserted into a vessel to act as a channel for
return of venous blood to the heart and how the right side
the transport of fluid. Cannulas come in different styles
Circulating nurse An operating-room nurse who does not
Cross clamp (X-clamp) A special clamp that is applied to the
‘scrub in’ and does not wear sterile clothing (except to
aorta to prevent the flow of blood through the aorta while
relieve the scrub nurse). The circulating nurse helps pre-
some type of surgical procedure is performed on the heart or
pare the patient for the operation, may assist the anaes-
thetist and carries out non-sterile surgical tasks, such as
Cross-clamp time The length of time that the aorta is cross-
opening packets of sutures, or obtaining equipment from
clamped and blood does not flow through the aorta (or
Closed-heart surgery Surgery carried out on and around the
Cusp The flap or leaflet portion of any of the heart valves that
heart, and without use of a heart-lung machine or stopping
forms the movable part of the valve.
Cyanosis A bluish discolouration of the skin that indicates
Coarctation of the aorta A constriction or narrowing of the
that the hemoglobin in the blood has a reduced amount of
main blood vessel (aorta) that carries blood from the heart
oxygen. Peripheral cyanosis (for example, of the finger-
to the body. The narrowing is situated somewhere along
nails) occurs when there is a reduction in blood flow to the
the vessel and restricts blood flow from the heart to the rest
extremities. Central cyanosis (for example, of the tongue)
of the body. Patients with coarctation generally have hyper-
occurs when there is lung or heart disease, such as a right
tension with high blood pressures in the arms and low
to left shunt or inadequate breathing.
pressures in the legs. They may also have associated hyper-trophy of the left ventricle and a heart murmur, and may
Definitive repair Surgical repair of a lesion, which corrects the
Complete atrioventricular canal defect The most severe type
Deoxygenated Having a reduced amount of oxygen, as in
of the atrioventricular canal deformities. This lesion is
characterized by direct communication between the right
Descending aorta The part of the aorta that curves down from
and left ventricles and absence of the openings to the
the heart and extends down into the abdomen to where the
aorta branches into the common iliac arteries.
Complete heart block Complete blockage of the heart’s nor-
Diastolic Pertaining to diastole or the relaxation phase of the
mal electrical current between the atria and ventricles. This
condition almost always requires treatment with a pace-maker, after emergency treatment with drugs (and some-
Digoxin A drug often used in the treatment of congestive
times with external cardiac massage).
heart failure. Digoxin makes the heart muscle pump morestrongly, slows the rate or speed at which the heart beats
Congenital Refers to conditions that are present at birth,
and increases blood flow to the kidneys, which helps in the
removal of excess fluid from the body. The same drug is
Congestive heart failure (CHF) The inability of either the
sometimes used to treat certain arrhythmias.
right or the left ventricle to pump all the blood that returns
Distal Away from. (The opposite of proximal.)
to it. As a result, blood backs up in the blood vessels lead-ing to that ventricle and the vessels become congested with
Diuretic A drug that increases the production of urine by the
blood. Failure of the right ventricle (or right heart failure)
kidneys. As a result, a patient may excrete more water and
leads to blood backing up in the liver and legs. Failure of
the left ventricle (or left heart failure) leads to blood back-
Double outlet (right) ventricle A condition in which both the
pulmonary artery and the aorta connect to the right ventricle.
Coronary arteries The two arteries, right and left, which arise from
Ductus arteriosus An arterial duct or vessel in the fetal heart
the ascending aorta, curve down over the top of the heart and
that connects the left pulmonary artery to the descending
then branch out over the surface of the heart.The right coronary
aorta. The ductus arteriosus allows blood to bypass the
artery (RCA) supplies most of the right ventricle, while the left
lungs in the fetal circulation and normally closes shortly
coronary artery (LCA) supplies most of the left ventricle. These
after birth. If it does not close, the condition is termed
arteries supply the working heart muscle with oxygen.Blockage
of an artery or one (or more) of its branches may lead to theheart being starved of oxygen, causing a myocardial infarction.
Dysplastic Any tissues that are abnormally developed.
A P P E N D I X
Heart murmur An abnormal sound heard when the heart
beats. This sound may result simply from increased blood
flow in the heart—the murmur is termed physiological and
Echocardiogram (ECHO) The use of ultrasound to produce
is not considered serious. Other murmurs are caused by
images of the inside of the heart and how it works.
blood flowing through abnormal openings in the heart(such as a patent foramen ovale) or through an abnormal
ECMO See Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation
heart valve (such as aortic stenosis).
Heart sounds Noises produced as the heart valves open and
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) A graphic record of the
close in precise sequence, allowing blood to flow forward
electrical impulses produced by the heart. This record
into the next chamber and not backward. It is the closing
shows the rate, rhythm and site of origin of these electrical
of these valves that produces the heart sounds, as in the
impulses, as well as if the patient has had damage to the
Hemoglobin The special compound in red blood cells to
Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) A
method of providing life-support for a patient whose heart
Hemorrhage Bleeding or loss of blood, which may be sudden
and/or lungs have failed. ECMO is a form of long-term
cardiopulmonary bypass. A cannula takes blood from thebody to a special membrane outside the body (or extracor-
Heparin A drug used to decrease the ability of the blood to
poreal), where oxygen is added and carbon dioxide is
clot, resulting in an increase in (or prolongation of) the
removed. The blood is then returned to the body through
clotting time. In cardiopulmonary bypass, heparin is used
to prevent clots from forming in the heart-lung machine.
Epinephrine A drug that is used to increase the blood pres-
Hypertension An increase in blood pressure, either of the sys-
sure, heart rate and force of contraction of the heart. This
temic circulation or of the pulmonary circulation.
results in an increase in cardiac output from the heart.
Hypertrophy An increase in size or overgrowth of a tissue or
Epinephrine, which is also known as adrenalin, may cause
organ. In the heart, either the left or the right ventricle may
an irregularity of the heartbeat or an arrhythmia.
hypertrophy in response to increased work of pumping
Hypoplasia Underdevelopment of a tissue or organ. An example
would be hypoplasia of the aortic arch,where blood flow to the
Foramen ovale A natural opening in the septum between the two
body is hampered by an underdeveloped and therefore restrict-
atria that allows blood to bypass the lungs in the fetal circula-
tion. Failure of the foramen ovale to close leads to a defect inthe septum known as a patent foramen ovale or PFO.
Hypoplastic Pertaining to hypoplasia or underdevelopment.
Heart block The interruption or blockage of the normal con-
Hypoplastic aortic arch Underdevelopment of the aortic arch,
duction of electrical impulses in the heart. Heart block is
leading to restricted blood flow through the aorta.
classified as first degree, second degree or third degree
Hypoplastic left-heart syndrome A complex group of con-
(also known as complete heart block).
genital heart lesions, including hypoplasia or even com-
Heart failure Inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood
plete absence of the left ventricle and severe hypoplasia of
(or cardiac output) to the body and/or the lungs. Heart fail-
the aorta. There may also be a combination of aortic and
ure can affect either the right ventricle or the left ventricle
mitral valve stenosis or aortic and mitral valve atresia.
or both. As a result, blood backs up in the blood vessels
Hypoplastic left ventricle Underdevelopment of the left ven-
leading to that ventricle and the vessels become congested
with blood. Failure of the right ventricle (or right heart fail-ure) leads to blood backing up in the liver and legs. Failure
Hypothermia A reduction in the central or core temperature of
of the left ventricle (or left heart failure) leads to blood
the body below 36 degrees Celsius. In cardiac surgery, a
backing up in the lungs. This may then lead to right heart
patient may be made hypothermic, by infusing cold liquids
failure. Sometimes the term congestive heart failure (CHF)
into the circulation and/or packing ice around parts of the
is used to describe left heart failure.
body. This is done in order that the flow of blood to thebrain and other tissues may be reduced, thus allowing the
surgeon to safely repair the heart, without damage occur-
Norwood operation or procedure A stage in the surgical
ring in the organs that would otherwise be starved of oxy-
treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In this oper-
gen. With deep hypothermia, the patient (usually an
ation, a pulmonary homograft is used to enlarge the rudi-
infant) is intentionally cooled to about 16 to 20 degrees
mentary aortic arch and then join it to the functioning pul-
Celsius. This allows surgeons to be able to stop the heart
for about 45–60 minutes and to operate without either the
Open-heart surgery Surgery carried out on the heart that is
heart moving or tubing or blood being in the very small
opened or its major blood vessels, while the blood is
diverted through a heart-lung machine.
Hypoxia A reduction in the amount of oxygen available for use
Pacemaker An electrical device that can be used to replace the
Hypoxic Pertaining to a reduction in the amount of oxygen.
heart’s defective natural pacemaker or conduction pathway.
Inferior vena cava (IVC) The major vein that carries the
The artificial pacemaker emits a series of electrical dis-
deoxygenated blood from the lower limbs and most of the
charges from a battery and so controls the rate and rhythm
organs of the pelvis and abdomen. The IVC returns this
Palliative Reducing the severity or alleviating the symptoms of
Interrupted aortic arch When the aorta does not develop
a condition without curing the underlying abnormal con-
completely in the area of the arch. As a result, the aorta is
dition. Does not usually offer a good long-term outcome.
divided into two parts that are not connected to each other,
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return Oxygenated
preventing blood flow through the aorta.
blood returning from the lungs is carried by one or more pul-
monary veins emptying directly or indirectly through venouschannels into the right atrium instead of the left atrium. This
Invasive A technique of studying the body in which instru-
lesion functions in a manner similar to an atrial septal defect.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) A condition in which the
ductus arteriosus fails to close shortly after birth. This
results in a significant right to left shunt of blood. Babieswith this condition often develop heart and lung failure.
Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) A very rapid heart beat
Treatment with drugs (indomethacin) is possible, and sur-
that can be fatal if not properly controlled.
Left-to-right shunt Abnormal direct passage of oxygen-rich
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) A failure of the foramen ovale to
blood from the left side of the heart to the right side, at the
close, resulting in an opening in the septum between the
level of the atria or the ventricles.
Left ventricular failure When the left ventricle is unable to
Pediatrics (Paediatrics) The branch of medicine that deals
pump all the blood out through the aorta. The blood then
with the development and care of children, as well as the
backs up within the left ventricle and then progressively
into the left atrium and into the lungs. Fluid then builds upin the lungs.
Ligate To tie off, by application of a ligature or suture. For
Perfusion The act of forcing liquid to flow through the vessels
example, in cardiac surgery, the surgeon may ligate a patent
of an organ. In heart surgery, the term perfusion refers
specifically to use of the heart-lung machine for cardiopul-monary bypass.
Ligature A thread or suture that is tied tightly around a blood
Perfusionist A person who is specially trained to operate a
heart-lung machine for cardiopulmonary bypass. In
Mitral valve The heart valve between the left atrium and the
Canada, perfusionists are technicians, although in some
left ventricle. This valve has two flaps or cusps and is one
countries, doctors act as perfusionists.
Pulmonary artery (PA) The large artery that carries blood
Neonate A newborn child aged from birth to six weeks.
from the right ventricle to the lungs.
A P P E N D I X
Pulmonary artery stenosis Narrowing of the vessels involved
and other equipment that will be used and then during the
in pulmonary blood flow caused by an underdevelopment
operation by handing the instruments to the surgeon.
of the area around the lung valve and along the pulmonary
Septum A muscular wall that divides the two chambers on the
arteries. This narrowing can be anywhere from just a block-
right side of the heart from the two chambers on the left.
age at the valve to thickening below the valve. There can
The atrial portion of the septum divides the top chambers,
also be narrowing of the pulmonary artery above the valve,
the right and left atria. The ventricular portion of the sep-
and the vessel can narrow into both of the branches that go
tum divides the bottom chambers, the right and left ven-
Pulmonary atresia Absence of the normal opening from the
Shunt A passage between two blood vessels or two chambers
right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
of the heart. A shunt may occur naturally (as in a left-to-
Pulmonary blood flow The flow of blood from the right ven-
right shunt though an ASD) or may be artificially formed
tricle through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs and back
(as in creation of a Blalock-Taussig shunt).
through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium.
Stenosis Narrowing or constriction of an opening, such as a
Pulmonary circulation The circulation from the right side of
the heart through the lungs to the left side of the heart.
Sternotomy Incision into or through the sternum or breast
Pulmonary hypertension An increase in pressure in the blood
vessels of the pulmonary circulation.
The pulmonary trunk The common stem of the pulmonary
Stroke volume The volume of blood ejected by the heart with
arteries, which arises from the upper surface of the right
ventricle and then divides into the right and left pulmonaryarteries.
Subpulmonary stenosis Narrowing of the entrance to the
pulmonary valve in the right ventricle.
Pulmonary valve The valve in the heart between the right ven-
Superior vena cava (SVC) The major vein that receives the
deoxygenated blood from the upper limbs and the head
Pulmonary valve stenosis An abnormal narrowing of the pul-
and neck. The SVC returns this blood to the right atrium.
monary valve. If the narrowing is mild and there are noother abnormalities, the patient may be symptom-free.
Moderate and severe stenosis will impair the flow of blood
Systemic blood flow Blood flow to the body, as opposed to
to the lungs, and right ventricular hypertrophy will develop
in response to the increased work of pumping bloodthrough a narrowed opening.
Tachycardia An abnormally rapid beat. In an adult, a heart rate
of more than 100 beats per minute is termed a tachycardia.
Pulmonary vein stenosis Narrowing of the pulmonary veins.
In a child, the definition of tachycardia depends on the age
Pulse The wave of increased pressure produced in the blood
of the child and from which part of the heart the increase
vessels of the body each time the left ventricle contracts.
Regurgitation The abnormal backward flow of fluid. In the
TAPVC See Total anomalous pulmonary venous connec-
heart, regurgitation occurs when blood flows backward
through a valve and into a chamber from which it was
already pumped. This increases the work of the heart.
Right-to left-shunt The abnormal direct passage of oxygen-
poor blood from the right side of the heart to the left side,
Tetralogy of Fallot This congenital heart lesion has four major
at the level of the atria or the ventricles. This blood does
abnormalities. These are a hole or defect in the ventricular
not pass through the lungs, with the result that there is a
septum (VSD), displacement of the aorta overtop the ven-
dilution or lessening of the amount of oxygen in the blood
tricular septum, hypertrophy of the muscle of the right
ventricle and obstruction to blood flow from the right ven-tricle or right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (which
Scrub nurse An operating room nurse who ‘scrubs in’ and
most often results from pulmonary stenosis). Babies with
wears sterile clothing and gloves. This nurse helps the sur-
Tetralogy of Fallot are often referred to as ‘Tet’ babies.
geon before the operation by preparing the instruments
Tet spells Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot can suffer from Tet
Tricuspid valve The valve of the heart between the right atri-
spells or periods when they are extremely cyanotic. The
um and the right ventricle. This valve is one of two atri-
symptoms are most often brought on by activity. Tet spells
usually indicate an urgent need for repair of the heart
Ultrasound High-frequency sound vibrations that cannot be
heard by a human ear and are used in medical diagnosis. In
Thoracotomy Incision into the chest wall.
pediatric cardiology, one use of ultrasound includesechocardiography, which gives a picture of the heart and
Total circulatory arrest (TCA) Complete stoppage of the cir-
how it functions. In obstetrics, ultrasound is used to mon-
culation of the heart, including complete stoppage of the
itor the development and well-being of the fetus.
heart-lung machine. This allows the surgeon to work onthe heart without blood or perfusion cannula partially
Valve A membranous fold in part of the body that prevents the
obscuring the surgical site. This technique requires deep
back-flow of blood or other fluids. In the heart, there are
hypothermia so that the tissues of the body, especially the
four valves that help propel the blood flow forward.
brain, are protected from the prolonged lack of oxygen.
Vascular Pertaining to the blood vessels.
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC)
Vein A blood vessel that carries blood from various parts of the
All of the oxygenated blood returning from the lungs is
body back toward the heart. Most veins carry blood that is
carried abnormally to the right heart by one or more pul-
low in oxygen or deoxygenated. The main exception is the
monary veins emptying directly or indirectly through
venous channels into the right atrium instead of the left. Aconnection between the right and left atria (or inter-atrial
Vena cava The major vein of the body, which carries blood back
connection) is necessary to allow oxygenated blood to
to the right side of the heart. The superior vena cava (SVC)
reach the left side of the heart for distribution to the rest of
drains the top part of the body, while the inferior vena cava
(IVC) drains blood from the lower part of the body.
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) A type of special-
ized examination of the heart, which involves performing
Venous return The blood that is carried in the veins from all
echocardiography by placing the ultrasound probe in the
parts of the body (including the heart itself) back to the
patient’s esophagus, rather than against the chest wall.
When used during cardiac surgery, TEE allows the surgeonto evaluate the adequacy of the repair of the congenital
Ventricle One of the two lower pumping chambers of the
heart defects, the adequacy of function of the ventricles and
the valves and the presence of any residual intracardiac
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) An abnormal opening or
hole in the septum between the two lower chambers or
Transposition of the great arteries/vessels A congenital
ventricles of the heart. Flow of blood is normally from left
abnormality where the two major blood vessels are
to right (left to right shunt), because of the higher pump-
switched in their positions, so that the aorta arises from
ing pressures produced by the left ventricle. If pulmonary
the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the
hypertension develops, the shunt may be reversed, with
left ventricle. As a result, the pulmonary and systemic cir-
blood flowing from right to left. This will result in oxygen-
culations work independently, producing a severe lack of
poor blood being delivered to the systemic side of the cir-
oxygen after birth. Survival of the infant is possible only if
culation, and the patient will appear cyanosed.
there is a connection between the two circulations, such as
an ASD, a VSD or a patent ductus arteriosus.
Tricuspid atresia Congenital absence of the normal valvular
opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
There is also a small right ventricle, a large left ventricle anddecreased pulmonary circulation. Blood from the right atri-um passes through an atrial septal defect into the left atri-um, where it mixes with oxygenated blood returning fromthe lungs, then flows into the left ventricle and out into thesystemic circulation. Blood reaches the lungs through anatrial septal defect and a ventricular septal defect.
A P P E N D I X
Hormontherapie beim Mammakarzinom von Dr. med Bernhard Ost Warum Hormontherapie? In Deutschland erkranken jährlich rund 50.000 Frauen an Brustkrebs, 19.000 sterben jährlich daran. Seit langem ist bekannt, dass ein Zusammenhang zwischen Östrogenen und der Entstehung eines Mammakarzinoms besteht. Das heißt, das weibliche Geschlechtshormon Östrogen gibt den Krebszellen einen Wach
« L’éducation philosophique : positions critiques et questions pratiques » Nicolas Go, philosophe LRC-ICEM (mission recherche) et UMR-ADEF Université de Provence firstname.lastname@example.org Préalable Je voudrais commencer par rendre hommage à la Grèce qui, avec l’Inde, accompagne depuis fort longtemps l’activité de pensée qui guide mon existence. C’est une banalité de di