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Microsoft word - cataract surgery protocols.doc

Aravind Eye Care System
1, Anna Nagar, Madurai - 625 020,
Tamilnadu, India
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol SURGICAL PROTOCOL FOR ADMINISTERING ANAESTHESIA
1. Block Room
ƒ Block room doctor should wash their hands ƒ Checking of emergency kit (adrenaline, atropine, Deriphylline, Dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, phenergan, mephentin, diazepam, O2 cylinder with kit, I V Kit, syringes, plaster, scissors, I V normal saline, Intubation kit, Suction apparatus, etc) should be done 2. Selection of Anaesthetic solution
ƒ To all normal patients 2% Xylocaine – 30 ml mixed with adrenaline 0.5 ml (1:1000) with ƒ To patients with hypertension and cardiac diseases 2% xylocaine with 1 amp As the time taken for cataract surgery is short, it may not be necessary to add Bupivocaine along with xylocaine for anaesthesia. The only advantage may be that the patient may not feel the pain for a long time as there is prolonged anaesthesia. At the same time it is known that the bupivocaine produces lid edema and chemosis. 3. Quantity of anaesthetic solution
4. Needles
ƒ For facial & peribulbar block use No.23, 1" disposable needle ƒ Alternatively we can use sub conjuntival No 26G,1/2" disposable needle through trans LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol 5. Checking the case records
ƒ Confirm the name of the patients. If you find two or more with the same name, confirm patients relative routinely with place. E.g. W/O, H/O, F/O, M/O, S/O ƒ Recheck for specific systemic diseases (e.g. asthma, etc.) ƒ Any complicating conditions like - PXF, Subluxated lens, rigid pupil etc. ƒ Whether diabetes controlled - FBS < 140mg% BP < 100mmhg diastolic and < 160mmhg systolic
6. Hypotony
ƒ Massage is to be either digital or by super pinky. indicated
Vigorous massage avoided in
Corneal status, anesthesia and akinesia checked
LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol 7. I.V. Mannitol
2.5 cc per kg body weight of 20% Mannitol to be given about half an hour before surgery. Avoid in uncontrolled HT, cardiac patients, and renal diseases. Before starting drip check BP Indications
Patient is moved on the stretcher and is told to avoid ambulation for 6 hours. 8. Informing the surgeon
ƒ Inform the operating surgeon in case of any complicating condition. ƒ Inform if surgery other than cataract / IOL ƒ Patients with the same name, check the address in details & also the eye 9. Decision regarding the postponing the case
ƒ BP - diastolic > 90mmhg, systolic > 150mmhg ƒ Any complication of local anaesthesia ƒ Local factors - any infection of lids and adnexa ƒ IOP of more than 30 mm hg in spite of all medications, except in lens-induced LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol 12. Managing Anaesthetic Complications
ƒ The patient to be made to lie down in supine position and the legs raised up. The room should be airy. The patients clothes should be loosened ƒ Give IV atropine one amp. If there is bradycardia or hypotension. ƒ To keep resuscitation equipment ready like - oxygen cylinder, endotracheal tube, laryngoscope, ambu bag, scalp vein set, emergency drugs. ƒ Periodic check of expiry dates of emergency drugs. ƒ To inform anaesthetist or physician, if patient does not have adequate recovery. ƒ Start patient on acetazolamide, check tension LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol STANDARDIZED PRE-OPERATIVE PROTOCOL FOR CATARACT SURGERY
The purpose of the pre operative assessment is to:
• Confirm the diagnosis of visually significant cataract • Ensure the cataract is the cause of the visual symptoms • Determine if there is co-existing ocular pathology • Ensure the patient wishes to undergo surgery & understands specific risks if any • Assess systemic problems and to manage it 1. Admission:
Admission is done one day earlier or 2 hours prior to surgery (For local patients, who had pre op. investigations earlier) on the day of surgery a. Patient is preferably seen by the operating surgeon, especially if they for posted for re-surgery or have other associated complications requiring deviation from regular surgical technique. b. Slit lamp examination in detail and to look for conjunctival congestion, discharge, cornea, AC depth, lens maturity (in Phaco cases) and phacodonesis. d. Posterior segment evaluation of both eyes, if view is sufficient. e. Ask for history of systemic illness/ allergy to drugs. f. To explain about possible conversion to routine ECCE with IOL in cases with small pupil and advanced nuclear sclerosis who want phacoemulsification. g. One-eyed patient should be given identification markings. 2. Investigations
a) Routine Investigations: For all cases
3. Duct – including application of pressure over the sac region LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol Additional
investigations
1. ECG for adults (For known cardiac patients, those with history suggestive of cardiac 2. Chest x-ray (If advised by physician) c) Additional investigations: For GA cases
d) Conjunctival culture is required in the following cases
3. H/O Chronic infection eg. Blepharitis 4. Duct not free & partially free with clear fluid 6. In post Trabeculectomy patients going for cataract surgery 7. Any H/O previous intraocular surgery (preferably) . e) Checking of Xylocaine sensitivity
Optional in patients with h/o drug allergy. 3. Biometry
An interocular difference in axial length of more than 0.3mm or K readings which vary by more than one dioptre requires confirmation. These results should only be accepted when repeated measurements show consistent results When there are large differences between the K readings and/or axial lengths, consider the possibility of amblyopia or vitreous opacities such as asteroid hyalosis. An amblyopic eye may have been forgotten by the patient and may not be corrected in the current spectacle For highly myopic eyes (axial > 28mm), B-scan should be carried out to determine the presence or LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol The SRK T is regarded as a very good general formula.
The doctor doing the pre operative assessment also should formulate a surgical plan
including:
• Type of anaesthesia (Including need for stand by anaesthetist) • IOL type and power (order special lenses if required) • Incision placement and astigmatism reduction procedures if appropriate • Complexity of surgery e.g. small pupil, pseudoexfoliation, previous eye surgery • Level of surgical experience required 4. Pre-medication
All patients should wash their face with soap and water. The ward nurse should then clean the brow region and lid margin with 5% povidone iodine solution ƒ Topical antibiotic: 6 – 8 times previous day and hourly on the day of surgery ƒ Preferred antibiotics – Ciprofloxacin eye drops ƒ Diazepam 5 mg: Previous night (optional) There is no need for pre operative oral or parenteral antibiotics. In high risk cases T.Ciprofloxacin 500mg twice daily for 3 days may be useful. 5. Instruction regarding dilatation
ƒ Tropicamide with phenylephrine 1 drop every 15 min. 2 to 3 times ƒ Plain Tropicamide for hypertensives and cardiac cases ƒ Ketrolac eye drops 3 times every 15 min. 6. Patient’s cleanliness
LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol ƒ -Hair cut if necessary previous to surgery. 7. No clipping of eye lashes if drapes are used.
Technique for applying the drape: Apply drapes taking particular attention to ensure its tight
adherence at the medial canthus, nasal bridge and naso – labial fold. Keep the adhesive slightly redundant over the open eyelids while applying. However, prevent corneal touch. Lift the temporal edge of the adhesive at the lateral canthus and make a horizontal slit upto the medical canthus. At the medical canthus, extend the cut in a “V” or “T” shaped manner. Insert the eyelid speculum through the slit opening in such a manner that the eyelid margin and eyelids are wrapped with the edges of the adhesive. 8. Pre - Operative counseling:
Explain to the patient about the anaesthesia, surgical procedure, the level of pain they may experience during surgery, about draping etc., Also explain about the post op. follow up and explain the do’s and don’ts during the post op. period. Group counseling is preferred. 9. Day of surgery
One eyed and diabetics patients to be given preference in surgery list Clean clothing to be worn by the patients Medication:
T.Acetazolamide – 1 hour before surgery LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol PRE OPERATIVE PROTOCOL FOR MANAGEMENT OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES
Decision Making on patients with systemic diseases
Diabetes
Criteria for admission;
Criteria for surgery
With FBS < 160 mgs % on the day of surgery On the day of surgery
To stop oral anti diabetic drugs on the morning of surgery If on insulin, 1/3 of the dose to be given in the morning Hypertension
Criteria for admission
Criteria for surgery
Upper limit is 180/100 mm hg
For cases coming from camp having high BP, give sedatives first before starting anti- hypertensive drugs. Check the BP in the ward before going to OT. On the day of surgery
To avoid adrenaline in local anaesthesia LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol Cardiac cases
Criteria for admission
A recent ECG & clearance by physician Surgery to be undertaken a minimum of 3-6 months after myocardial Infarction Oral antiplatelet need not be stopped for cataract surgery If on oral anticoagulants to check for prothrombin time If less than 18 seconds can be taken for surgery On the day of surgery
No adrenaline in anaesthetic solution or phenylephrine for dilation. Cautery should not be used in patients with pace makers. Stand by physician or anaesthetist
Asthmatics
Criteria for admission
1. Asthma should be under control with drugs 2.To continue the medicines during hospital stay 3. Check for wheeze before surgery and if present give IV bronchodilators or steroids On the day of surgery
Special care for ventilation while draping. All asthmatics need an airway during surgery. Use Oxygen / Nebulizer during surgery if the patient is uncomfortable. Inj. Deriphylline / Dexamethasone 1 amp. IV, SOS
Switch off the air-conditioner (optional) Avoid NSAIDS. If needed to use tablet nimusulide / paracetamol LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol Renal Failure/renal transplant
If systemic antibiotics are needed give Oral or IV ciprofloxacin Any septic focus
Dental infection, history of purulent discharge Physician's opinion essential
Recently diagnosed uncontrolled asthmatics Other systemic problems if any (To be decided by doctor) Patients with systemic illnesses are encouraged to go back to their treating physicians for
control of their problem and get it controlled before coming for admission. Admitted if the
patient is unwilling to go back and allow them to stay few days to prepare them before
surgery.
Choice of sedation
Anxious or uncooperative patients should be given IV midazolam. This should be given only LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol POST-OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
Routine Management of uncomplicated cases
On the day of surgery:
Before surgery: T.Acetazolamide – 1 hour before surgery After surgery: T. Paracetamol 500 mg, repeated after 8 hours if needed. Planned ECCE / SICS / with IOL / without IOL :
First dressing can be done 8 hours after surgery. Look for the following findings (pupil to be dilated)
ƒ Section - Apposition of Wound / Wound Leak / Gape ƒ Cornea - Epithelial Defect, Edema, SK ƒ A.C. - Hyphema, Hypopyon, Cortical Matter, Depth ƒ PC - Opacity, Rent, Vitreous disturbance The main aim of postoperative examination in the morning is to look for any early sign of infection, as one has to withhold the steroids and start other intensive measures. Routine Medication – 1st day
ƒ Immediate post-op analgesic tablets along with Tab. Acetazolamide SR 1 tab –optional.-if ƒ Combined Antibiotic & Steroid eye drops are applied four to six times per day as required LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol ƒ Base Hospital patients – 1st PO day ƒ Camp – 1st PO day / ideally on the second or third day. ƒ Keeping the camp patients for one extra night will help to properly counsell them about follow up , post op. medications, health education as well for motivating them to motivate others in the community to come for surgery. On discharge check the following:
On discharge explain about:
ƒ Advise the patient regarding tapering dose of Combined Antibiotic & steroids Ofloxacin with prednisolone & ofloxacin with dexamthasone eye drops. • 6 times a day - 7 days • 5 times a day - 7 days • 4 times a day – 7 days • 3 time a day - 7 days • 2 time a day - 7 days • 1 time a day - 7 days • Cycloplegics (Homoatropine / Cyclopentolate ) & NSAID (Diclofenac) drops or other medications given if required – for 10 days. Like the pre operative period, there is no need for systemic antibiotics or for prolonged use of LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol Special Instruction during Discharge:
ƒ Encourage mobility and early resumption of routine activities
ƒ No head bath for 7 days /camp patients 30 days. ƒ Normal diet from the day of operation ƒ No river or pond bath (dip in) for 3 months ƒ After suture removal no pond or river bath for at least 1 week ƒ TV viewing & reading if comfortable ƒ Not to drive two wheelers without protecting glasses ƒ Not to lift heavy weight for ECCE with sutures ƒ Dark glasses to be used for one month for outdoor activities till regular glasses To report immediately if they have:
Routine follow up
FIRST follow up – After 30 days ;
• Refraction, Slit lamp exam. Fundus exam. • Glass prescription if visual recovery is satisfactory • If visual acuity is not good look for CME & Start NSAID drops • Follow up SOS or after 6 months. The patients who have undergone Manual SICS can be given spectacles after 30 days. However it is preferable to see conventional ECCE – IOL patients after three months for refraction and removal of sutures, if required. LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol MEDICATION PROTOCOL FOR CATARACT SURGERY
I. Pre operative:
1. Ciprofloxacin eye drops: 2 drops for 6 times on the day before surgery. 2. T.Alprazolam 0.25 mg – 1 tablet at bed time II. On the day of surgery:
For dilatation
ƒ Tropicamide with phenylephrine 1 drop every 15 min. 2 to 3 times ƒ 1% cyclopentolate 1 drop every 15 min. 3 times ƒ NSAID eye drops 3 times every 15 min. surgery:
T. Alprazolam 0.25 mg (Optional)- In the morning T.Acetazolamide – 1 hour before surgery Anaesthetic solution for giving retro or peribulbar block
ƒ Normal patients: 2% Xylocaine (30ml) mixed with 0.5 ml of adrenaline with (1:1000) with 1,500 units of Hyaluronidase. ƒ Patients with hypertension and cardiac diseases: 2% xylocaine with 1,500 units of Hyaluronidase (with Bupivocaine (1:1)-optional. Quantity of anaesthetic solution
After surgery in the ward on the day of surgery
1. T. Acetazolamide SR – 1 tablet SOS. 2. T.Paracetamol – 1 tablet twice daily LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System
Standardized Cataract Surgical Protocol III. First postoperative day
1. Combined Antibiotic & Steroid eye drops are applied four to six times per day as required 3. Other drugs like acetazolamide and NSAID drops or tablet to be given if required IV. After discharge
3 bottles of steroid antibiotic solution of 5 ml each Advise the patient regarding tapering dose of Combined Antibiotic & steroids Cycloplegics (Homoatropine / Cyclopentolate) & NSAID (Ketrolac) drops or other medications given if required – for 10 days There is no need for routine use of oral antibiotics either pre operatively or post operatively. Antibiotic steroid combination eye drops is sufficient for post operative use and there is no need for additional antibiotic eye drops. LAICO, Aravind Eye Care System

Source: http://www.v2020eresource.org/files/cataract%20surgery%20protocols.pdf

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