Impotentie brengt een constant ongemak met zich mee, net als fysieke en psychologische problemen in uw leven cialis kopen terwijl generieke medicijnen al bewezen en geperfectioneerd zijn


Animal Research International (2006) 3(3): 540 – 544 540
OBIUKWU, Millian Okwudili and ONYALI, Ikechukwu Oliver
Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
Corresponding Author: Obiukwu M. O., Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe
University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. Email: Phone: 234-8030935633


The efficacy and side effects of single dose treatment at different dose regimen of four

anthelmintics against Ancylostoma caninum in experimentally infected pups were evaluated and
compared based on total worm count and egg per gram (epg) count. Ancylol at both normal (1
mg/kg/BW) and elevated dose level (1.5 ml/kg/BW) showed 93.15 % and 93.87% (based on
worm count) and 93.13 and 93.75 % (based on ep
g count) respectively. Whereas Ivomec® (a brand
of Ivermectin) at normal dose level (1 ml/50 kg) and elevated dose level (1.5 ml/50 kg) was found
to be effect
ive. The resul s were 79.48 % and 86.81% based on worm count and 89.44 % and
92.50 % based on epg count. Mebendazole and Piperazine even at elevated dose level was
observed ineffective. Pups treated at normal and elevated dose level revealed acute toxicosis
whereas those treated with Mebendazole showed cough and vomiting tendencies which later
subsided and also, there was no risk involved in the administration of the drugs. Statistical analysis
showed that there was statistical difference (P < 0.05) in the efficacy of the drugs. However there
was sign i
d fference (P < 0.05) between % efficacy and dosage. There was also significant
difference between (P < 0.5) between epg count and drugs. The use of various compounds against
ancylostomiasis in dogs has been discussed.

Anthelmintics, Efficacy, Ancylostoma caninum

anthelmintics with good efficacy and least toxic Ancylostomiasis (hookworm disease) is a disease of The present study deals with the anthelmintics worldwide distribution. The most widespread of all efficacy of Ancylol, Ivomec, Mebendazole and hookworm species is A. caninum and it parasitizes Piperzine against A. caninum infection in pups. dog throughout the tropics and subtropics. Due to its high prevalence and its zoonotic significance, MATERIALS AND METHODS
Ancylostoma caninum has gained major importance in the field of veterinary as well as public health 100 g of stool from each of 3 infected dogs selected research. In recent years the realization that A. was mixed with 300 g of sterilized sand (hot air oven caninum can cause human gut disease has sparked sterilized). This was kept in a moist chamber at 25 OC (Sen et al., 1965). The culture solution with which In the normal canine host, infection with A. the filter paper was kept wet and protected consisted caninum usually follows skin contact with L3 larvae of 0.01 % HCl and 0.2 % NaCl (Bhai and Pande, that have developed in the soil. Invasive L3 larvae 1981). The culture was sprayed with mycostatin (Bhai undergo either tracheal migration to reach the gut and Pande, 1981) ten days later, the dish was tilted (leading to obvious infection) or somatic migration to and about 0.5 ml of water which percolated was invade and stay as reservoirs mainly in the skeletal muscle fibres. Heterogenous infections in animals and Bearnan’s apparatus (Cheesbrough, 1987) amphixenous anthropozoonosis are common causing was used to isolate larvae that may remain in the apthous ulceration, eosinophilic enteritis (Prociv, filter paper. Larvae collected were further cleaned in sucrose gradient (400g sucrose in a litre of distilled water). The larvae were kept at 4 oC for few days available but such drugs must be used correctly to before use (Banerjee et al., 1970; Ikeme, 1976). obtain favourable clinical response. The ideal Finally active larvae were collected by using muslin anthelmintics should have a wide margin of safety, impregnated with 1.5 % agar (Warren, 1965). considerable activity against immature stages, easy Ninety six pups (mongrel breed) of about 4 to administer, inhibit re-infection and be compatible weeks age were dewormed with Ivomec at 1 ml/50 with other compound not require long withholding kg BW for 2 days and divided into four groups each periods because of residue and be cost effective. To subdivided into 3 subgroups with each subgroup overcome the problem of hookworm infestation, the ISSN: 159-3115 ARI 2006 3(3): 540 – 544 Obiukwu and Onyali
For each experiment a separate infected control and control group. F-LSD for epg count and dose also group without treatment was maintained. All the pups showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the were infected orally with 300 larvae of A. caninum On treated groups and the control group; moreover, day 24 post infection, each was treated with different there was also a significant difference between epg anthelmintics. Each of the subgroup was treated with count and days (periods) of the experiment. different dosage of the anthemintics. The treatment schedule followed in this experiment is shown in DISCUSSION
Two methods were adopted for therapeutic From the result of the study, pups treated with evaluation of the drugs. One of the methods was Ancylol had very few worms in their intestinal lumen based on total egg count by Stools dilution method showing efficacy of 93.2 % and 93.8 % for normal (Soulsby, 1982) and the other was based on total and elevated dose treatments respectively. Efficacy worm count (Georgi, 1969). The eggs per gram based on epg count was also high. However, faster values of 96 pups were determined at pre-treatment respiration and depression were noticed immediately and day 7, 14, 28 and 30 days post treatment. For after drug was injected into the body. This lasted for the total worm count, the animals were sacrificed. about 30 minutes before normalcy returned. Tiwari Necropsy was performed according to Sen et al and Bandopadhayay (1995) had earlier reported (1965). The gastrointestinal system of each pup was similar reactions in dogs treated with disophenol. removed. The stomach, small intestine and large Furthermore, in another study, Pneumarthy et al. intestine were cut open lengthwise with a fine (1995) reported acute toxicosis in pups injected scissors and the content scrapped and washed into disopenol subcutaneously at 0.8 ml/kg. Misraulia et the separated containers and later strained through al. (1989) reported Ancylol poisoning in dog at a sieves. The sieves were spread out with the aid of higher dose level. In their study, the symptoms of needles and searched for worms visually and with toxicity developed few minutes of post injection. Signs of acute toxicosis were not reported in an Irish wolf Hound breed given recommended dose of method described by USDVM thus: Efficacy = (Mean Ancylol (Legendre, 1973). This may be attributed to of the control - mean treated) x 100/ Mean control the genetic difference among the different breeds of pups. Therefore, further research is needed in this Data collected were analysed using area. Tiwari and Bandopadhayay (1995) reported a descriptive statistics and analysis of variance case of sub-acute/chronic toxicosis in a pedigreed (ANOVA) and F-LSD to indicate statistical significance Doberman Picher dog aged 15 months suffering from acute hookworm infection and anaemia. According to their report, Ancylol at 1 ml/kg subcutaneously produced after dew days oedematous swelling at the site of injection anorexia, vomiting, faster respiration Efficacy of the drugs tested based on worm count and depression. The toxicosis observed in this study and epg count were shown on Tables 1 and 2. Table later subsided when a teaspoonful vitamin B12 was 3 revealed that Ancylol had the highest efficacy followed by Ivomec super especially at elevated and Result from our study indicated that the normal levels. Mebendazole and Piperazine were least group treated Ivomec at subdose level had efficacy of efficacious even at elevated dose level. Ancylol has 53.5 % based on worm count and 88.3 % based on the highest efficacy of 93.87 % and 93.15 % at epg count. At a normal dose level, efficacy of 79.5 % elevated and normal does levels respectively while at based on worm count was obtained while at elevated subdose level, efficacy of 84.31 % was obtained. dose level, 86.8 % efficacy was obtained. This implies Using Ivomec at elevated and normal dose levels, that even at elevated dose level, efficacy with the efficacy of 86.81 % and 79.48 % efficacy were normal dose are almost the same, therefore obtained. At elevated and normal dose levels of increasing the dose is merely a waste of resources as Mebendazole efficacy of 67.39 % and 61.28 % were the difference was not statistically significant. In an obtained. While at subdose level 44.44 % efficacy earlier study, similar result in respect to efficacy of was obtained. Using piperazine, at elevated and Ivomec at different dose levels has been reported by normal levels 58.88 % and 52.58% were obtained. (Anderson and Robinson, 1982) for Toxocara canis But at subdose level 42.51 % efficacy was obtained. infected Indian dogs. On the contrary, Ramizs (1984) Statistical analysis using ANOVA and F-LSD showed obtained a lesser efficacy in Labrado breed infected that there was statistical difference in the efficacy of with Ascarid worm. This really showed that efficacy of drugs can also depend on the breed of the animals The result in Table 2, revealed efficacy of and the brand of the drug used. From the result it the based on epg count. From the result it could be could be seen that even Ivomec was not an effective seen that the highest efficacy were obtained at drug against hookworm disease because a reasonable elevated dose level in the entire anthelmintic group number of worms persist in the intestine after as the case may be. Statistical analysis using ANOVA treatment. Incidentally it is sad to report that it is the showed that there was significant difference (P < common drug used in most Veterinary Clinics in 0.05) between epg counts in Ancylol treated group Anambra State. No wonder why the disease persist and control and also between Ivomec treated group despite the efforts made to eradicate it. Efficacy of anthelmintics against Ancylostoma caninum in experimentally infected pups
Table 1: Efficacy of Ancylol, Ivomec, Mebendazole and Piperazine against A. caninum infections in
Sub group
Dose of drug used
% Efficacy
Ancylol treatments (ml/kg BW)
Ivomec treatments (ml/50 kg BW)
Mebendazole treatments (mg/
Piperazine treatments (ml/kg
Unsimilar letters on the same column= significantly di fferent means.
Table 2: Efficacy of anthelmintics against A. caninum infections in pups based on epg count
Sub group

of Pre-treatment
% Efficacy
Ancylol treatments (ml/kg BW)
Ivomec treatments (ml/50 kg BW)
Mebendazole treatments (mg/10 kg BW)
Piperazine treatments (ml/kg BW)
Unsimilar letters on the same column= significantly di fferent means. On the group treated with Mebendazole, it was observed that few minutes after the administration of Suryanaraya (1995) reported that two dose levels of the drug all the pups showed signs of cough and Mebendazole given 24 hrs apart at the dose rate of vomiting tendency for about 30 minutes and later 50 mg/kg was 100 % effective in treating dog subsided. At normal dose level and even at an elevated dose level, the efficacy was low. However, Kates et al. (1972) recorded an outstanding some studies have shown that this may be due to efficacy of Mebendazole against most intestinal strain variation, as different strains of A. caninum nematodes and lung worms of sheep. This was have variable degree of infectivity (Zenkov, 1971). confirmed by Armour et al. (1981) who recorded 99 Melhorn (1998) had earlier reported that % reduction in worm and burdens over a grazing Mebendazole was effective against Echinococcus season with a mean improvement in weight gain. granulosus with survival of few worms in the intestinal lumen of dog. Anderson (1975) reported adipate, there was 52.5 % efficacy at normal dose 98.8 % efficacy of Mebendazole against nematodes level. Those that receive sub dose treatment showed of dogs and ruminants. Gemmel et al (1975) has also efficacy of 42.5 % while those of elevated dose level reported effectiveness of Mebendazole against Obiukwu and Onyali
On necropsy, many worms were seen in the intestinal GEMMEL, M. A., JOHNSTONE, P. D. and GUDEMANS, lumen. It was also observed that the liver of the pups were grossly damaged and adversely inflamed nematodes in dog. Research in Veterinary especially those treated at sub dose level. Pulmonary damage in the form of haemorrhagic pneunonitis was GENEALOR, J. and REINACKLE, R. K. (1970) South Africa Veterinary Medical Association, rough skin coat, falling of furs, paleness of mucous membrane and weakness persisted after treatment. GEORGI, J. R. (1969). Parasitology for Veterinarians. Similar result in an earlier study of Piperazine efficacy W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 237 has been reported for Toxocara infection in Australian pups (English and Sprent, 1965). Robinson et al GRUSS, B., MALAN, F. S., ROPER, N. A., PLESSIS, C. (1976) had reported 68 % efficacy against immature A. and ASHBURNER, A. J. (1988). Efficacy of Toxocara canis in Australian pups dogs when given 150 mg/kg, whereas Shearer and Genmelt (1969) Veterinary Association, 59: 204 – 210. suggested higher dose of 200 mg/kg for complete IKEME, M. M. (1976). Human hookworm infections: a removal of mature worms. It has also been found to be highly effective against Moniezia expansa and Pharmaceutical Marketing, 4(5): 295 – 298. Thysaniezia giardi in sheep, goat and cattle at 65 KATES, K. C., ALLEN, R. W. and WILSON, G. I. mg/kg b. wt (English and Sprent, 1965). However, it has been reported to be infective against Stilesia Mebendazole. A comparison of the efficacy hepatica in calve (Genealor and Reinackle, 1970, of pyrantel and Mebendazole in dogs. Pages Medherkar et al., 1987; Gruss et al., 1988). The 38 – 39. n: Prognosis and Abstracts of 43 ineffectiveness reported in Piperazine might be due to the drug selectivity to helminth species because from result of this study, Piperazine even at elevated dose LEGENDRE, A. B. (1973). Anthelmintic studies in dogs. Australian Veterinary Practice, 6: 27 – REFERENCES
MEDHERKAR, D. R., RAMANATHAN, S., KHAN, M. A. ANDERSON, D. L. (1975) Efficacy of Mebendazole studies. Livestock Advances, 12: 5 – 7. against nematodes of dogs and ruminants. MELHORN, H. (1998). Parasitology in focus: Facts ANDERSON, D. L. and ROBINSON, E. L. (1982). MISRAULIA, K. S., SISODIA, R. S. and MEHTA, H. K. (1989). Disophenol toxicosis in dog. Indian Veterinary Resources, 43: 1681 – 1684. PNEUMARTHY, L. P., DEHME, W. and MENHUSEN, J. ARMOUR, J., BRUCE, R. G. and MITRA, S. K. (1981). J. (1995). Disophenol toxicosis in a dog. Piperazine against intestinal nematodes of PROCIV, P. (1998). Indigestion, not scorched earth beats alien hookworm? Parasitology Today, BANERJEE, D., PRAKASH, O. and DEO, M. G. (1970). Studies on Ancylostoma caninum infection in RAMIZS, A. (1984). Comparative efficacy of anthelmintic against experimentally induced intraperitoneal routes of infection. Indian Ascaridia infection in pups. Pages 25 – 27. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Scientific BHAI, I. and PANDE, A. K. (1981). Experimental ROBINSON, M., HOOKE, F. G. and IVERSON, K. E. Ancylostomiasis in Swiss albino mice adrenal (1976). Comparative efficacy of Piperazine Ivermectin against experimentally induced Toxocara canis infection in pups. Australian CHEESBROUGH, M. (1987). Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries. Volume 1. SANJEEVA R. S. and SURYANARAYANA, C. (1995) Clinico-Biochemical and therapeutic studies on toxocarasis in dogs. Indian Veterinary ENGLISH, P. B. and SPRENT, F. J. A. (1965). Efficacy Toxocara canis infection in pups. Australian Efficacy of anthelmintics against Ancylostoma caninum in experimentally infected pups
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