Animal Research International (2006) 3(3): 540 – 544 540 COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF ANCYLOL, IVOMEC, MEBENDAZOLE AND PIPERAZINE AGAINST Ancylostoma caninum IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED PUPS OBIUKWU, Millian Okwudili and ONYALI, Ikechukwu Oliver
Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
Corresponding Author: Obiukwu M. O., Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. Email: email@example.com Phone: 234-8030935633 ABSTRACT The efficacy and side effects of single dose treatment at different dose regimen of four anthelmintics against Ancylostoma caninum in experimentally infected pups were evaluated and compared based on total worm count and egg per gram (epg) count. Ancylol at both normal (1 mg/kg/BW) and elevated dose level (1.5 ml/kg/BW) showed 93.15 % and 93.87% (based on worm count) and 93.13 and 93.75 % (based on ep g count) respectively. Whereas Ivomec® (a brand of Ivermectin) at normal dose level (1 ml/50 kg) and elevated dose level (1.5 ml/50 kg) was found to be effect ive. The resul s were 79.48 % and 86.81% based on worm count and 89.44 % and 92.50 % based on epg count. Mebendazole and Piperazine even at elevated dose level was observed ineffective. Pups treated at normal and elevated dose level revealed acute toxicosis whereas those treated with Mebendazole showed cough and vomiting tendencies which later subsided and also, there was no risk involved in the administration of the drugs. Statistical analysis showed that there was statistical difference (P < 0.05) in the efficacy of the drugs. However there was sign i d fference (P < 0.05) between % efficacy and dosage. There was also significant difference between (P < 0.5) between epg count and drugs. The use of various compounds against ancylostomiasis in dogs has been discussed. Keywords: Anthelmintics, Efficacy, Ancylostoma caninum
anthelmintics with good efficacy and least toxic
Ancylostomiasis (hookworm disease) is a disease of
The present study deals with the anthelmintics
worldwide distribution. The most widespread of all
efficacy of Ancylol, Ivomec, Mebendazole and
hookworm species is A. caninum and it parasitizes
Piperzine against A. caninum infection in pups.
dog throughout the tropics and subtropics. Due to its
high prevalence and its zoonotic significance,
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Ancylostoma caninum has gained major importance
in the field of veterinary as well as public health
100 g of stool from each of 3 infected dogs selected
research. In recent years the realization that A.
was mixed with 300 g of sterilized sand (hot air oven
caninum can cause human gut disease has sparked
sterilized). This was kept in a moist chamber at 25 OC
(Sen et al., 1965). The culture solution with which
In the normal canine host, infection with A.
the filter paper was kept wet and protected consisted
caninum usually follows skin contact with L3 larvae
of 0.01 % HCl and 0.2 % NaCl (Bhai and Pande,
that have developed in the soil. Invasive L3 larvae
1981). The culture was sprayed with mycostatin (Bhai
undergo either tracheal migration to reach the gut
and Pande, 1981) ten days later, the dish was tilted
(leading to obvious infection) or somatic migration to
and about 0.5 ml of water which percolated was
invade and stay as reservoirs mainly in the skeletal
muscle fibres. Heterogenous infections in animals and
Bearnan’s apparatus (Cheesbrough, 1987)
amphixenous anthropozoonosis are common causing
was used to isolate larvae that may remain in the
apthous ulceration, eosinophilic enteritis (Prociv,
filter paper. Larvae collected were further cleaned in
sucrose gradient (400g sucrose in a litre of distilled
water). The larvae were kept at 4 oC for few days
available but such drugs must be used correctly to
before use (Banerjee et al., 1970; Ikeme, 1976).
obtain favourable clinical response. The ideal
Finally active larvae were collected by using muslin
anthelmintics should have a wide margin of safety,
impregnated with 1.5 % agar (Warren, 1965).
considerable activity against immature stages, easy
Ninety six pups (mongrel breed) of about 4
to administer, inhibit re-infection and be compatible
weeks age were dewormed with Ivomec at 1 ml/50
with other compound not require long withholding
kg BW for 2 days and divided into four groups each
periods because of residue and be cost effective. To
subdivided into 3 subgroups with each subgroup
overcome the problem of hookworm infestation, the
ISSN: 159-3115 ARI 2006 3(3): 540 – 544 www.zoo-unn.org
Obiukwu and Onyali
For each experiment a separate infected control
and control group. F-LSD for epg count and dose also
group without treatment was maintained. All the pups
showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the
were infected orally with 300 larvae of A. caninum On
treated groups and the control group; moreover,
day 24 post infection, each was treated with different
there was also a significant difference between epg
anthelmintics. Each of the subgroup was treated with
count and days (periods) of the experiment.
different dosage of the anthemintics. The treatment
schedule followed in this experiment is shown in
Two methods were adopted for therapeutic
From the result of the study, pups treated with
evaluation of the drugs. One of the methods was
Ancylol had very few worms in their intestinal lumen
based on total egg count by Stools dilution method
showing efficacy of 93.2 % and 93.8 % for normal
(Soulsby, 1982) and the other was based on total
and elevated dose treatments respectively. Efficacy
worm count (Georgi, 1969). The eggs per gram
based on epg count was also high. However, faster
values of 96 pups were determined at pre-treatment
respiration and depression were noticed immediately
and day 7, 14, 28 and 30 days post treatment. For
after drug was injected into the body. This lasted for
the total worm count, the animals were sacrificed.
about 30 minutes before normalcy returned. Tiwari
Necropsy was performed according to Sen et al
and Bandopadhayay (1995) had earlier reported
(1965). The gastrointestinal system of each pup was
similar reactions in dogs treated with disophenol.
removed. The stomach, small intestine and large
Furthermore, in another study, Pneumarthy et al.
intestine were cut open lengthwise with a fine
(1995) reported acute toxicosis in pups injected
scissors and the content scrapped and washed into
disopenol subcutaneously at 0.8 ml/kg. Misraulia et
the separated containers and later strained through
al. (1989) reported Ancylol poisoning in dog at a
sieves. The sieves were spread out with the aid of
higher dose level. In their study, the symptoms of
needles and searched for worms visually and with
toxicity developed few minutes of post injection.
Signs of acute toxicosis were not reported in an Irish
wolf Hound breed given recommended dose of
method described by USDVM thus: Efficacy = (Mean
Ancylol (Legendre, 1973). This may be attributed to
of the control - mean treated) x 100/ Mean control
the genetic difference among the different breeds of
pups. Therefore, further research is needed in this
Data collected were analysed using area. Tiwari and Bandopadhayay (1995) reported a
descriptive statistics and analysis of variance
case of sub-acute/chronic toxicosis in a pedigreed
(ANOVA) and F-LSD to indicate statistical significance
Doberman Picher dog aged 15 months suffering from
acute hookworm infection and anaemia. According to
their report, Ancylol at 1 ml/kg subcutaneously
produced after dew days oedematous swelling at the
site of injection anorexia, vomiting, faster respiration
Efficacy of the drugs tested based on worm count
and depression. The toxicosis observed in this study
and epg count were shown on Tables 1 and 2. Table
later subsided when a teaspoonful vitamin B12 was
3 revealed that Ancylol had the highest efficacy
followed by Ivomec super especially at elevated and
Result from our study indicated that the
normal levels. Mebendazole and Piperazine were least
group treated Ivomec at subdose level had efficacy of
efficacious even at elevated dose level. Ancylol has
53.5 % based on worm count and 88.3 % based on
the highest efficacy of 93.87 % and 93.15 % at
epg count. At a normal dose level, efficacy of 79.5 %
elevated and normal does levels respectively while at
based on worm count was obtained while at elevated
subdose level, efficacy of 84.31 % was obtained.
dose level, 86.8 % efficacy was obtained. This implies
Using Ivomec at elevated and normal dose levels,
that even at elevated dose level, efficacy with the
efficacy of 86.81 % and 79.48 % efficacy were
normal dose are almost the same, therefore
obtained. At elevated and normal dose levels of
increasing the dose is merely a waste of resources as
Mebendazole efficacy of 67.39 % and 61.28 % were
the difference was not statistically significant. In an
obtained. While at subdose level 44.44 % efficacy
earlier study, similar result in respect to efficacy of
was obtained. Using piperazine, at elevated and
Ivomec at different dose levels has been reported by
normal levels 58.88 % and 52.58% were obtained.
(Anderson and Robinson, 1982) for Toxocara canis
But at subdose level 42.51 % efficacy was obtained.
infected Indian dogs. On the contrary, Ramizs (1984)
Statistical analysis using ANOVA and F-LSD showed
obtained a lesser efficacy in Labrado breed infected
that there was statistical difference in the efficacy of
with Ascarid worm. This really showed that efficacy of
drugs can also depend on the breed of the animals
The result in Table 2, revealed efficacy of
and the brand of the drug used. From the result it
the based on epg count. From the result it could be
could be seen that even Ivomec was not an effective
seen that the highest efficacy were obtained at
drug against hookworm disease because a reasonable
elevated dose level in the entire anthelmintic group
number of worms persist in the intestine after
as the case may be. Statistical analysis using ANOVA
treatment. Incidentally it is sad to report that it is the
showed that there was significant difference (P <
common drug used in most Veterinary Clinics in
0.05) between epg counts in Ancylol treated group
Anambra State. No wonder why the disease persist
and control and also between Ivomec treated group
despite the efforts made to eradicate it.
Efficacy of anthelmintics against Ancylostoma caninum in experimentally infected pups Table 1: Efficacy of Ancylol, Ivomec, Mebendazole and Piperazine against A. caninum infections in Sub group Dose of drug used % Efficacy recovered established Ancylol treatments (ml/kg BW) Ivomec treatments (ml/50 kg BW) Mebendazole treatments (mg/ Piperazine treatments (ml/kg
Unsimilar letters on the same column= significantly di fferent means.
Table 2: Efficacy of anthelmintics against A. caninum infections in pups based on epg count Sub group of Pre-treatment % Efficacy Ancylol treatments (ml/kg BW) Ivomec treatments (ml/50 kg BW) Mebendazole treatments (mg/10 kg BW) Piperazine treatments (ml/kg BW)
Unsimilar letters on the same column= significantly di fferent means.
On the group treated with Mebendazole, it was
observed that few minutes after the administration of
Suryanaraya (1995) reported that two dose levels of
the drug all the pups showed signs of cough and
Mebendazole given 24 hrs apart at the dose rate of
vomiting tendency for about 30 minutes and later
50 mg/kg was 100 % effective in treating dog
subsided. At normal dose level and even at an
elevated dose level, the efficacy was low. However,
Kates et al. (1972) recorded an outstanding
some studies have shown that this may be due to
efficacy of Mebendazole against most intestinal
strain variation, as different strains of A. caninum
nematodes and lung worms of sheep. This was
have variable degree of infectivity (Zenkov, 1971).
confirmed by Armour et al. (1981) who recorded 99
Melhorn (1998) had earlier reported that % reduction in worm and burdens over a grazing Mebendazole was effective against Echinococcus
season with a mean improvement in weight gain.
granulosus with survival of few worms in the
intestinal lumen of dog. Anderson (1975) reported
adipate, there was 52.5 % efficacy at normal dose
98.8 % efficacy of Mebendazole against nematodes
level. Those that receive sub dose treatment showed
of dogs and ruminants. Gemmel et al (1975) has also
efficacy of 42.5 % while those of elevated dose level
reported effectiveness of Mebendazole against
Obiukwu and Onyali
On necropsy, many worms were seen in the intestinal
GEMMEL, M. A., JOHNSTONE, P. D. and GUDEMANS,
lumen. It was also observed that the liver of the pups
were grossly damaged and adversely inflamed
nematodes in dog. Research in Veterinary
especially those treated at sub dose level. Pulmonary
damage in the form of haemorrhagic pneunonitis was
GENEALOR, J. and REINACKLE, R. K. (1970)
South Africa Veterinary Medical Association,
rough skin coat, falling of furs, paleness of mucous
membrane and weakness persisted after treatment.
GEORGI, J. R. (1969). Parasitology for Veterinarians.
Similar result in an earlier study of Piperazine efficacy
W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 237
has been reported for Toxocara infection in Australian
pups (English and Sprent, 1965). Robinson et al
GRUSS, B., MALAN, F. S., ROPER, N. A., PLESSIS, C.
(1976) had reported 68 % efficacy against immature
A. and ASHBURNER, A. J. (1988). Efficacy of
Toxocara canis in Australian pups dogs when given
150 mg/kg, whereas Shearer and Genmelt (1969)
Veterinary Association, 59: 204 – 210.
suggested higher dose of 200 mg/kg for complete
IKEME, M. M. (1976). Human hookworm infections: a
removal of mature worms. It has also been found to
be highly effective against Moniezia expansa and
Pharmaceutical Marketing, 4(5): 295 – 298.
Thysaniezia giardi in sheep, goat and cattle at 65
KATES, K. C., ALLEN, R. W. and WILSON, G. I.
mg/kg b. wt (English and Sprent, 1965). However, it
has been reported to be infective against Stilesia
Mebendazole. A comparison of the efficacy
hepatica in calve (Genealor and Reinackle, 1970,
of pyrantel and Mebendazole in dogs. Pages
Medherkar et al., 1987; Gruss et al., 1988). The
38 – 39. n: Prognosis and Abstracts of 43
ineffectiveness reported in Piperazine might be due to
the drug selectivity to helminth species because from
result of this study, Piperazine even at elevated dose
LEGENDRE, A. B. (1973). Anthelmintic studies in
dogs. Australian Veterinary Practice, 6: 27 –
MEDHERKAR, D. R., RAMANATHAN, S., KHAN, M. A.
ANDERSON, D. L. (1975) Efficacy of Mebendazole
studies. Livestock Advances, 12: 5 – 7.
against nematodes of dogs and ruminants.
MELHORN, H. (1998). Parasitology in focus: Facts
ANDERSON, D. L. and ROBINSON, E. L. (1982).
MISRAULIA, K. S., SISODIA, R. S. and MEHTA, H. K.
(1989). Disophenol toxicosis in dog. Indian
Veterinary Resources, 43: 1681 – 1684.
PNEUMARTHY, L. P., DEHME, W. and MENHUSEN, J.
ARMOUR, J., BRUCE, R. G. and MITRA, S. K. (1981).
J. (1995). Disophenol toxicosis in a dog.
Piperazine against intestinal nematodes of
PROCIV, P. (1998). Indigestion, not scorched earth
beats alien hookworm? Parasitology Today,
BANERJEE, D., PRAKASH, O. and DEO, M. G. (1970).
Studies on Ancylostoma caninum infection in
RAMIZS, A. (1984). Comparative efficacy of
anthelmintic against experimentally induced
intraperitoneal routes of infection. Indian
Ascaridia infection in pups. Pages 25 – 27.
In: Proceedings of 3rd International Scientific
BHAI, I. and PANDE, A. K. (1981). Experimental
ROBINSON, M., HOOKE, F. G. and IVERSON, K. E.
Ancylostomiasis in Swiss albino mice adrenal
(1976). Comparative efficacy of Piperazine
Ivermectin against experimentally induced
Toxocara canis infection in pups. Australian
CHEESBROUGH, M. (1987). Medical Laboratory
Manual for Tropical Countries. Volume 1.
SANJEEVA R. S. and SURYANARAYANA, C. (1995)
Clinico-Biochemical and therapeutic studies
on toxocarasis in dogs. Indian Veterinary
ENGLISH, P. B. and SPRENT, F. J. A. (1965). Efficacy
Toxocara canis infection in pups. Australian
Efficacy of anthelmintics against Ancylostoma caninum in experimentally infected pups
SEN, H. G., JOSHI, U. N. and SETH, D. (1965). Effect
TIWARI, S. P. and BANDOPADHYAY. A. C. (1995).
Sub-acute Disophenol toxicosis in pedigreed
infection in Albino Mice. Transactions of the
dog. Indian Veterinary Journal, 72: 645 –
WARREN, L. G. (1965). Biochemistry of the dog
SHEARER, G. C. and GENMELT, M. A. (1969).
Anthelmintic studies in dogs. Research in
ZENKOV, A. V. (1971). Chemotherapeutics in dog
SOULSBY, E. J. L. (1982). Helminths, Arthropods and
nematode Infection. Helminthology Abstract,
Edition, Bailliere, Tindal and Casell Limited, London, 766 pp.
How mountain ash affects diabetes in live animals * Mountain ash has given good results in our lab tests. It seems to help muscle cells take up more sugar by acting the same way Metformin does. Now we are ready to test the plant on live animals. In this study, we looked at whether the inner bark from mountain ash would fight diabetes in three different situations, from mild About how diabe
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Framework Document Reforming Academic Governance February 2011 I. Introduction In the academic arena, the reform process at AAU has now reached a stage where the following have been successfully accomplished: 1. Definition of the university-wide structure for academic administration 2. Establishment of all academic units and university-wide academic o